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 Instructional Focus DocumentMathematical Models with Applications
 TITLE : Unit 07: Savings, Investments, and Insurance SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

#### Unit Overview

Introduction
This unit bundles student expectations that address savings, investments, and insurance options. Concepts are incorporated into both mathematical and real-world problem situations. According to the Texas Education Agency, mathematical process standards including application, tools and techniques, communication, representations, relationships, and justifications should be integrated (when applicable) with content knowledge and skills so that students are prepared to use mathematics in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Prior to this Unit
In Grade 4, students compared the advantages and disadvantages of various savings options. In Grade 5, students learned multiplication of decimals. In Grade 7, students calculated and compared simple interest and compound interest earnings. In Grade 8, students used the compound interest formula with only annual compounding. In Algebra I, students were introduced to the concept of a function in terms of a linear relationship and studied the exponential parent function f(x) = abx.

During this Unit
Students explore and compare options for life insurance, considering permanent and term policies, amount of coverage, premiums, and needs of different individuals based on income and family situation. Students explore and compare options for medical insurance considering coverage options, deductibles, premiums, and an individual's health needs, situation, and income. Students explore and compare options for homeowner's and renter's insurance, considering coverage, deductibles, premiums, and the different needs of individuals based on income and living situation. Students explore and compare options for automobile insurance, considering coverage options for state requirements for liability coverage, collision and comprehensive coverage, medical coverage, rental coverage, and premiums based on the value of the automobile being insured and the profile of the driver(s). Students define investment options, including the analysis of stocks, bonds, annuities, certificates of deposit, and retirement plans. Students explore and compare different investment options and the advantages and disadvantages, considering individual needs and time, earnings, fees, and accessibility of funds. Students explore savings options and compare simple and compound interest using multiple representations. Students demonstrate financial literacy and reasoning by presenting their preferences of insurance options, investments, and savings, supporting their preferences with tables, function models, and other influential factors.

Other considerations: Reference the Mathematics COVID-19 Gap Implementation Tool HS MMA

After this Unit
In Unit 08, students will extend personal financial literacy to include the analysis of loan amortizations, including financed purchases, home loans, and automobile loans.

This unit is supporting the development of the Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS): I. Numeric Reasoning B1; II. Algebraic Reasoning D1, D2; V. Statistical Reasoning A1, C2; VII. Problem Solving and Reasoning A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, C1, C2, D1, D2; VIII. Communication and Representation A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, C1, C2, C3; IX. Connections A1, A2, B1, B2, B3.

Research
According to the Connections Standard for Grades 9-12 from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), “Instructional programs from pre-kindergarten through grade 12 should enable students to:

• recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas;
• understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole;
• recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

When students can see the connections across different mathematical content areas, they develop a view of mathematics as an integrated whole. As they build on their previous mathematical understandings while learning new concepts, students become increasingly aware of the connections among various mathematical topics. As students' knowledge of mathematics, their ability to use a wide range of mathematical representations, and their access to sophisticated technology and software increase, the connections they make with other academic disciplines, especially the sciences and social sciences, give them greater mathematical power” (NCTM, 2000, p. 354).

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics: Connections standard for grades 9-12. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.
Texas Education Agency & Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas college and career readiness standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/index.cfm?objectid=E21AB9B0-2633-11E8-BC500050560100A9

 Financial and economic knowledge leads to informed and rational decisions allowing for effective management of financial resources when planning for a lifetime of financial security.  Why is financial stability important in everyday life? What economic and financial knowledge is critical for planning for a lifetime of financial security? How can mapping one’s financial future lead to significant short and long-term benefits? How can current financial and economic factors in everyday life impact daily decisions and future opportunities?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)
• In order to maintain financial stability, consumers must analyze and compare various insurance plans in terms of personal needs, costs, and risk factors to make predictions and budgetary judgments.
• Why is it important to have insurance, and what can be covered by insurance?
• What are types of …
• life insurance?
• homeowner’s and property insurance?
• health insurance?
• automobile insurance?
• What factors should be considered when purchasing …
• life insurance?
• homeowner’s insurance?
• health insurance?
• automobile insurance?
• What are risk factors that affect …
• life insurance?
• homeowner’s and property insurance?
• health insurance?
• automobile insurance?
• How does understanding various types of insurance promote a more secured financial future?
• Mathematical Modeling
• Personal Finance
• Finance and budgeting
• Insurance
• Associated Mathematical Processes
• Application
• Problem Solving Model
• Tools and Techniques
• Communication
• Representations
• Relationships
• Justification
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

 Quantitative relationships model problem situations efficiently and can be used to make generalizations, predictions, and critical judgements in everyday life. What patterns exist within different types of quantitative relationships and where are they found in everyday life? Why is the ability to model quantitative relationships in a variety of ways essential to solving problems in everyday life? Financial and economic knowledge leads to informed and rational decisions allowing for effective management of financial resources when planning for a lifetime of financial security.  Why is financial stability important in everyday life? What economic and financial knowledge is critical for planning for a lifetime of financial security? How can mapping one’s financial future lead to significant short and long-term benefits? How can current financial and economic factors in everyday life impact daily decisions and future opportunities?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)
• In order to maintain financial stability, consumers must compare and analyze investment and savings options in terms of personal needs, costs, and risk factors to make predictions and budgetary judgments.
• What are types of investment and savings options?
• Why is it important to develop a retirement plan using a variety of investment options?
• What information is important to analyze and compare investment and savings options?
• What are the advantages and disadvantages of different investment and savings options?
• What algebraic models can be used to represent investment and savings options?
• How can representations of function models for investment and savings options aid in analyzing and comparing the options?
• How does technology aid in calculating and analyzing investment and savings options?
• How does the analysis of algebraic models influence decisions regarding investments and savings?
• How does understanding investment and savings options promote a more secured financial future?
• Mathematical Modeling
• Personal Finance
• Finance and budgeting
• Investment
• Savings options
• Associated Mathematical Processes
• Application
• Problem Solving Model
• Tools and Techniques
• Communication
• Representations
• Relationships
• Justification
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

 Quantitative relationships model problem situations efficiently and can be used to make generalizations, predictions, and critical judgements in everyday life. What patterns exist within different types of quantitative relationships and where are they found in everyday life? Why is the ability to model quantitative relationships in a variety of ways essential to solving problems in everyday life? Financial and economic knowledge leads to informed and rational decisions allowing for effective management of financial resources when planning for a lifetime of financial security.  Why is financial stability important in everyday life? What economic and financial knowledge is critical for planning for a lifetime of financial security? How can mapping one’s financial future lead to significant short and long-term benefits? How can current financial and economic factors in everyday life impact daily decisions and future opportunities?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)
• In order to maintain financial stability, consumers must analyze and compare investment and savings options in terms of personal needs, costs, and risk factors to make predictions and budgetary judgments.
• What are types of savings options?
• Why is it important to develop a retirement plan using a variety of savings options?
• What information is important when analyzing and comparing savings options?
• What algebraic models can be used to represent savings options?
• How can representations of function models for savings options aid in analyzing and comparing the options?
• How does technology aid in calculating and analyzing savings options?
• How does the analysis of algebraic models influence decisions regarding savings?
• How does understanding investment and savings options promote a more secured financial future?
• Mathematical Modeling
• Personal Finance
• Finance and budgeting
• Savings options
• Associated Mathematical Processes
• Application
• Problem Solving Model
• Tools and Techniques
• Communication
• Representations
• Relationships
• Justification
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

#### MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

• Some students may not distinguish between linear and exponential relationships and which type of function applies in a situation.
• Some students may think that compounding of interest can only occur annually instead of applying multiple compounding periods within a year (e.g., \$3,000 compounded quarterly at an interest rate of 4.5% → A = 3000, where n = 4 represents the number of times interest is compounded annually).

#### Unit Vocabulary

• Annuities – contracts sold, usually by insurance companies, for which the buyer pays regular premiums for a specified time, and then receives a stated amount of money per month or year for life, usually beginning with the time of retirement
• Annual Percentage Yield (APY) – the effective annual rate of return taking into account the effect of compounding interest
• Available balance – the amount available in an account for a person, business, or organization to spend. Some types of savings accounts have limitations on time and amount of withdrawals allowed without penalty.
• Bank service fees – bank charges for different services for different types of accounts
• Bonds – investments made as a loan to a government entity, company, non-profit organization, for a stated amount of time and on which the investor (bond buyer) receives interest. Interest is usually paid periodically over the pre-determined time.
• Certificates of deposit (CD) – a specified amount deposited with a bank for a predetermined amount of time, from a few months to several years, that earns interest at a set rate. At the end of the specified time, on the maturity date, the deposited amount accrues the interest for the entire time.
• Compound interest – interest that is calculated on the latest balance, including all previously accumulated interest that has been added to the original principal
• Employer pension programs – a retirement plan through which an employer puts a portion of an employee's earnings into an account set aside and invested to grow for the employee's retirement. These funds are usually tax exempt at the time of deposit.
• Insurance coverage – the total or maximum amount by the insurance company a consumer will be paid in the event of a loss
• Insurance policy – a contract between an insurance company and customer that states the terms of the coverage, the limitations, and the premiums
• Insurance rates – premiums for different aspects of insurance that vary with amount of coverage, deductibles, and various risk factors
• Money market account – a savings account that pays interest based on current interest rates. Money market accounts pay higher interest rates than other savings options and usually require a higher minimum balance.
• Premiums – the amount of money paid by the customer to the insurance company for specified coverage as stated in the policy
• Savings account – a bank or credit union account in which the money deposited earns interest so there will be more money in the future than originally deposited. The owner of the account can make deposits and withdrawals at any time without penalty.
• Simple interest – interest paid on the original principal in an account, disregarding any previously earned interest
• Stocks – shares or pieces of a corporation's assets and earnings

Related Vocabulary

 Automobile insurance Collision coverage Comprehensive coverage Constant rate of change Deductible Exponential function Health insurance Homeowner’s insurance Individual Retirement Account (IRA) Interest Interest rate Investment Liability coverage Life insurance Linear function Risk factor Risk multiplier Roth IRA
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board – Texas College and Career Readiness Standards

Texas Education Agency – Mathematics Curriculum

Texas Education Agency – STAAR Mathematics Resources

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Revised Mathematics TEKS: Vertical Alignment Charts

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Mathematics TEKS: Supporting Information

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Interactive Mathematics Glossary

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Resources Aligned to Mathematical Models with Applications Mathematics TEKS

Texas Instruments – Graphing Calculator Tutorials

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), Texas Response to Curriculum Focal Points (TxRCFP) is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
M.1 Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to:
M.1A Apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Apply

MATHEMATICS TO PROBLEMS ARISING IN EVERYDAY LIFE, SOCIETY, AND THE WORKPLACE
Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical problem situations within and between disciplines
• Everyday life
• Society
• Workplace

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• VII.D. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Real-world problem solving
• VII.D.1. Interpret results of the mathematical problem in terms of the original real-world situation.
• IX.A. Connections – Connections among the strands of mathematics
• IX.A.1. Connect and use multiple key concepts of mathematics in situations and problems.
• IX.A.2. Connect mathematics to the study of other disciplines.
• IX.B. Connections – Connections of mathematics to nature, real-world situations, and everyday life
• IX.B.1. Use multiple representations to demonstrate links between mathematical and real-world situations.
• IX.B.2. Understand and use appropriate mathematical models in the natural, physical, and social sciences.
• IX.B.3. Know and understand the use of mathematics in a variety of careers and professions.
M.1B Use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution.

Use

A PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL THAT INCORPORATES ANALYZING GIVEN INFORMATION, FORMULATING A PLAN OR STRATEGY, DETERMINING A SOLUTION, JUSTIFYING THE SOLUTION, AND EVALUATING THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS AND THE REASONABLENESS OF THE SOLUTION
Including, but not limited to:

• Problem-solving model
• Analyze given information
• Formulate a plan or strategy
• Determine a solution
• Justify the solution
• Evaluate the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• I.B. Numeric Reasoning – Number sense and number concepts
• I.B.1. Use estimation to check for errors and reasonableness of solutions.
• V.A. Statistical Reasoning – Design a study
• V.A.1. Formulate a statistical question, plan an investigation, and collect data.
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.1. Analyze given information.
• VII.A.2. Formulate a plan or strategy.
• VII.A.3. Determine a solution.
• VII.A.4. Justify the solution.
• VII.A.5. Evaluate the problem-solving process.
• VII.D. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Real-world problem solving
• VII.D.2. Evaluate the problem-solving process.
M.1C Select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems.

Select

TOOLS, INCLUDING REAL OBJECTS, MANIPULATIVES, PAPER AND PENCIL, AND TECHNOLOGY AS APPROPRIATE, AND TECHNIQUES, INCLUDING MENTAL MATH, ESTIMATION, AND NUMBER SENSE AS APPROPRIATE, TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
Including, but not limited to:

• Appropriate selection of tool(s) and techniques to apply in order to solve problems
• Tools
• Real objects
• Manipulatives
• Paper and pencil
• Technology
• Techniques
• Mental math
• Estimation
• Number sense

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• I.B. Numeric Reasoning – Number sense and number concepts
• I.B.1. Use estimation to check for errors and reasonableness of solutions.
• V.C. Statistical Reasoning – Analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions from data
• V.C.2. Analyze relationships between paired data using spreadsheets, graphing calculators, or statistical software.
M.1D Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate.

Communicate

MATHEMATICAL IDEAS, REASONING, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS USING MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS, INCLUDING SYMBOLS, DIAGRAMS, GRAPHS, AND LANGUAGE AS APPROPRIATE
Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications
• Multiple representations, as appropriate
• Symbols
• Diagrams
• Graphs
• Language

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• II.D. Algebraic Reasoning – Representing relationships
• II.D.1. Interpret multiple representations of equations, inequalities, and relationships.
• II.D.2. Convert [among multiple representations of equations, inequalities, and relationships.
• VIII.A. Communication and Representation – Language, terms, and symbols of mathematics
• VIII.A.1. Use mathematical symbols, terminology, and notation to represent given and unknown information in a problem.
• VIII.A.2. Use mathematical language to represent and communicate the mathematical concepts in a problem.
• VIII.A.3. Use mathematical language for reasoning, problem solving, making connections, and generalizing.
• VIII.B. Communication and Representation – Interpretation of mathematical work
• VIII.B.1. Model and interpret mathematical ideas and concepts using multiple representations.
• VIII.B.2. Summarize and interpret mathematical information provided orally, visually, or in written form within the given context.
• VIII.C. Communication and Representation – Presentation and representation of mathematical work
• VIII.C.1. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using symbols, diagrams, models, graphs, and words.
• VIII.C.2. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
• VIII.C.3. Explain, display, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communications.
• IX.B. Connections – Connections of mathematics to nature, real-world situations, and everyday life
• IX.B.1. Use multiple representations to demonstrate links between mathematical and real-world situations.
M.1E Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

Create, Use

REPRESENTATIONS TO ORGANIZE, RECORD, AND COMMUNICATE MATHEMATICAL IDEAS
Including, but not limited to:

• Representations of mathematical ideas
• Organize
• Record
• Communicate
• Evaluation of the effectiveness of representations to ensure clarity of mathematical ideas being communicated
• Appropriate mathematical vocabulary and phrasing when communicating mathematical ideas

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• VIII.B. Communication and Representation – Interpretation of mathematical work
• VIII.B.1. Model and interpret mathematical ideas and concepts using multiple representations.
• VIII.B.2. Summarize and interpret mathematical information provided orally, visually, or in written form within the given context.
• VIII.C. Communication and Representation – Presentation and representation of mathematical work
• VIII.C.1. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using symbols, diagrams, models, graphs, and words.
• VIII.C.2. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
M.1F Analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas.

Analyze

MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS TO CONNECT AND COMMUNICATE MATHEMATICAL IDEAS
Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical relationships
• Connect and communicate mathematical ideas
• Conjectures and generalizations from sets of examples and non-examples, patterns, etc.
• Current knowledge to new learning

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.1. Analyze given information.
• VIII.A. Communication and Representation – Language, terms, and symbols of mathematics
• VIII.A.1. Use mathematical symbols, terminology, and notation to represent given and unknown information in a problem.
• VIII.A.2. Use mathematical language to represent and communicate the mathematical concepts in a problem.
• VIII.A.3. Use mathematical language for reasoning, problem solving, making connections, and generalizing.
• VIII.B. Communication and Representation – Interpretation of mathematical work
• VIII.B.1. Model and interpret mathematical ideas and concepts using multiple representations.
• VIII.C. Communication and Representation – Presentation and representation of mathematical work
• VIII.C.1. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using symbols, diagrams, models, graphs, and words.
• VIII.C.2. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
• VIII.C.3. Explain, display, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communications.
• IX.A. Connections – Connections among the strands of mathematics
• IX.A.1. Connect and use multiple key concepts of mathematics in situations and problems.
• IX.A.2. Connect mathematics to the study of other disciplines.
M.1G Display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.

Display, Explain, Justify

MATHEMATICAL IDEAS AND ARGUMENTS USING PRECISE MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE IN WRITTEN OR ORAL COMMUNICATION
Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical ideas and arguments
• Validation of conclusions
• Displays to make work visible to others
• Diagrams, visual aids, written work, etc.
• Explanations and justifications
• Precise mathematical language in written or oral communication

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.4. Justify the solution.
• VII.B. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Proportional reasoning
• VII.B.1. Use proportional reasoning to solve problems that require fractions, ratios, percentages, decimals, and proportions in a variety of contexts using multiple representations.
• VII.C. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Logical reasoning
• VII.C.1. Develop and evaluate convincing arguments.
• VIII.A. Communication and Representation – Language, terms, and symbols of mathematics
• VIII.A.3. Use mathematical language for reasoning, problem solving, making connections, and generalizing.
• VIII.B. Communication and Representation – Interpretation of mathematical work
• VIII.B.1. Model and interpret mathematical ideas and concepts using multiple representations.
• VIII.B.2. Summarize and interpret mathematical information provided orally, visually, or in written form within the given context.
• VIII.C. Communication and Representation – Presentation and representation of mathematical work
• VIII.C.3. Explain, display, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communications.
M.4 Mathematical modeling in personal finance. The student uses mathematical processes with algebraic formulas, numerical techniques, and graphs to solve problems related to financial planning. The student is expected to:
M.4A Analyze and compare coverage options and rates in insurance.

Analyze, Compare

COVERAGE OPTIONS IN INSURANCE

Including, but not limited to:

• Insurance policy – a contract between an insurance company and customer that states the terms of the coverage, the limitations, and the premiums
• Insurance coverage – the total or maximum amount by the insurance company a consumer will be paid in the event of a loss
• Types of insurance
• Auto insurance
• Most common types of auto coverage
• Liability (required by law) coverage pays for damage(s) to property and/or medical costs for persons injured by the insured in an accident or other occurrence.
• Collision coverage pays for damage(s) to automobile caused by a collision.
• Comprehensive coverage pays for damage(s) from an event other than a collision, including damage from weather events, theft, vandalism, etc.
• Rental coverage pays for rental of a vehicle for use while insured's vehicle is being repaired under an insured incident.
• Homeowner's and property insurance
• Most common types of property coverage
• Fire, storm, natural disaster (required by lenders) coverage pays the property owner for damages due to almost any natural phenomenon other than flood or rising water.
• Flood (may be required by lenders especially if house is located in a flood plain) coverage is available to property owners whose property is located in a place vulnerable to flooding and/or rising water.
• Burglary/Theft coverage pays for damage and loss due to theft from burglary on insured property, theft of personal belongings at places away from insured property, and personal robbery.
• Liability coverage protects the homeowner by paying for damages to personal property or personal injury to guests while on insured property.
• Renter's insurance coverage pays for damage to personal property such as furnishings and personal effects while living in a rented property.
• Health insurance
• Most common types of health coverage
• Medical
• Physician
• Hospital
• Laboratory and testing
• Prescription drugs
• Dental
• Vision
• Personal insurance
• Most common types of personal insurance
• Life insurance
• Term life insurance offers coverage for a limited period of time that provides a death benefit for the family of the insured if that person dies during that time period. Term policies generally do not accumulate cash value.
• Permanent (Whole) life insurance offers coverage that is usually lifetime and provides cash value in addition to death benefits to the family of the insured
• Total and permanent disability insurance provides a one-time payment if the insured is injured or becomes sick and is no longer able to work permanently.
• Critical illness insurance provides a one-time payment if the insured suffers a serious injury or illness as specified by the policy agreement.
• Income protection insurance replaces a portion of the insured's income during periods of time of economic stress due to lack of income.

Analyze, Compare

RATES IN INSURANCE

Including, but not limited to:

• Premiums – the amount of money paid by the customer to the insurance company for specified coverage as stated in the policy.
• Insurance rates – premiums for different aspects of insurance that vary with amount of coverage, deductibles, and various risk factors.
• Homeowner's and property insurance
• Factors that increase homeowner’s and property insurance rates may include age of home, poor construction, high risk location, previous claims, risk factors on property such as pools, low credit score, etc.
• Factors that lower homeowner’s and property insurance rates may include newer home, sturdy construction meeting updated codes, low risk location, no major claims, no risk factors on property, and high credit score.
• Auto insurance
• Factors that increase auto insurance rates may include traffic tickets, accident claims, location, driving habits, new vehicle, male under the age of 25, lapses in coverage, auto theft, low credit score, etc.
• Factors that lower auto insurance rates may include clean driving record (no tickets or accidents), location, married, used or less expensive vehicle, age between 50 and 65, no lapses in coverage, high credit score, etc.

Note(s):

• Grade 5 studied the multiplication of decimals.
• Algebra I studied the linear parent function f(x) = x.
• Mathematical Models with Applications introduces insurance, premiums and making decisions about coverage.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.1. Analyze given information.
• VII.B. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Proportional reasoning
• VII.B.1. Use proportional reasoning to solve problems that require fractions, ratios, percentages, decimals, and proportions in a variety of contexts using multiple representations.
• VII.C. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Logical reasoning
• VII.C.2. Understand attributes and relationships with inductive and deductive reasoning.
• IX.A. Connections – Connections among the strands of mathematics
• IX.A.2. Connect mathematics to the study of other disciplines.
• IX.B. Connections – Connections of mathematics to nature, real-world situations, and everyday life
• IX.B.1. Use multiple representations to demonstrate links between mathematical and real-world situations.
• IX.B.3. Know and understand the use of mathematics in a variety of careers and professions.
M.4B Investigate and compare investment options, including stocks, bonds, annuities, certificates of deposit, and retirement plans.

Investigate, Compare

INVESTMENT OPTIONS, INCLUDING STOCKS, BONDS, ANNUITIES, CERTFICATES OF DEPOSIT, AND RETIREMENT PLANS

Including, but not limited to:

• Stocks – shares or pieces of a corporation's assets and earnings
• Bonds – investments made as a loan to a government entity, company, non-profit organization, for a stated amount of time and on which the investor (bond buyer) receives interest. Interest is usually paid periodically over the pre-determined time.
• Annuities – contracts sold, usually by insurance companies, for which the buyer pays regular premiums for a specified time, and then receives a stated amount of money per month or year for life, usually beginning with the time of retirement
• Certificates of deposit (CD) – a specified amount deposited with a bank for a specified amount of time that earns interest at a set rate. At the end of the specified time, on the maturity date, the deposited amount accrues the interest for the entire time.
• Savings account – a bank or credit union account in which the money deposited earns interest on the principal over time. The owner of the account can make deposits and withdrawals at any time without penalty.
• Retirement plans
• Employer pension programs – a retirement plan through which an employer puts a portion of an employee's earnings into an investment account set aside to grow for the employee's retirement. These funds are usually tax exempt at the time of deposit.
• Individual retirement account (Traditional IRA)
• Individual Roth IRA

Note(s):

• Algebra I studied the linear parent function, f(x) = x and the exponential parent function f(x) = abx.
• Mathematical Models with Applications introduces investment and savings options and decisions.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.1. Analyze given information.
• VII.B. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Proportional reasoning
• VII.B.1. Use proportional reasoning to solve problems that require fractions, ratios, percentages, decimals, and proportions in a variety of contexts using multiple representations.
• VII.C. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Logical reasoning
• VII.C.2. Understand attributes and relationships with inductive and deductive reasoning.
• IX.A. Connections – Connections among the strands of mathematics
• IX.A.2. Connect mathematics to the study of other disciplines.
• IX.B. Connections – Connections of mathematics to nature, real-world situations, and everyday life
• IX.B.1. Use multiple representations to demonstrate links between mathematical and real-world situations.
• IX.B.3. Know and understand the use of mathematics in a variety of careers and professions.
M.4C Analyze types of savings options involving simple and compound interest and compare relative advantages of these options.

Analyze

TYPES OF SAVINGS OPTIONS INVOLVING SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST

Including, but not limited to:

• Simple interest – interest paid on the original principal in an account, disregarding any previously earned interest
• Simple interest formula: A = P(1 + rt), where A represents the total accumulated amount (principal and interest), P represents the original principal amount, r represents the rate of interest per year, and t represents the number of years.
• Compound interest – interest that is calculated on the latest balance, including all previously accumulated interest that has been added to the original principal
• Compound interest formula: A = P, where A represents the total accumulated amount including principal and earned compount interest, P represents the original amount deposited, r presents the interest rate per year, n represents the number of times per year the interest is paid (the compounding interval), and t represents the number of years. The more often interest is compounded, the faster the balance grows.
• Quarterly (four times per year): A = P
• Monthly (12 times per year): A = P
• Daily (365 times per year): A = P

Compare

Including, but not limited to:

• Savings account – a bank or credit union account in which the money deposited earns interest on the principal over time. The owner of the account can make deposits and withdrawals at any time without penalty.
• Certificates of deposit (CD) – a specified amount deposited with a bank for a specified amount of time that earns interest at a set rate. At the end of the specified time, on the maturity date, the deposited amount accrues the interest for the entire time.
• Money market account – a savings account that pays interest based on current interest rates. Money market accounts pay higher interest rates than other savings options and usually require a higher minimum balance.
• Annual percentage yield (APY) – the effective annual rate of return taking into account the effect of compounding interest
• Simple and compound interest
• Bank service fees – bank charges for different services for different types of accounts
• Available balance – the amount available in an account for a person, business, or organization to spend. Some types of savings accounts have limitations on time and amount of withdrawals allowed without penalty.

Note(s):

• Grade 7 calculated and compared simple interest and compound interest earnings.
• Grade 8 introduced the compound interest formula without using multiple compounding in a year.
• Algebra I studied the exponential parent function f(x) = abx.
• Mathematical Models with Applications introduces students to investment and savings options and decisions.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.1. Analyze given information.
• VII.B. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Proportional reasoning
• VII. B.1. Use proportional reasoning to solve problems that require fractions, ratios, percentages, decimals, and proportions in a variety of contexts using multiple representations.
• VII.C. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Logical reasoning
• VII.C.2. Understand attributes and relationships with inductive and deductive reasoning.
• IX.A. Connections – Connections among the strands of mathematics
• IX.A.2. Connect mathematics to the study of other disciplines.
• IX.B. Connections – Connections of mathematics to nature, real-world situations, and everyday life
• IX.B.1. Use multiple representations to demonstrate links between mathematical and real-world situations.
• IX.B.3. Know and understand the use of mathematics in a variety of careers and professions.