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 TITLE : Unit 08: Time SUGGESTED DURATION : 7 days

#### Unit Overview

Introduction
This unit bundles the concepts of reading and writing time to the nearest one-minute increment and distinguishing between a.m. and p.m. According to the Texas Education Agency, mathematical process standards including application, a problem-solving model, tools and techniques, communication, representations, relationships, and justifications should be integrated (when applicable) with content knowledge and skills so that students are prepared to use mathematics in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Prior to this Unit
In Grade 1, students told time to the hour and half-hour using analog and digital clocks.

During this Unit
Students extend their understanding of telling time to reading and writing time to the nearest one-minute increment using digital and analog clocks. Students understand that time is a measurement attribute used to describe the length of time increments. Students make connections between the marked and unmarked increments on a number line to the face of an analog clock in order to read time to the nearest minute. Students explore the continuous nature of time measurement as it applies to the rotation of hands on an analog clock and the rotation of the digits on a digital clock. Students use previous knowledge of fractions and their relationship between common terms used for describing time, such as “a quarter to,” “a quarter past,” or “half-past.” As students explore the concept of a 24-hour day, they are able to distinguish between a.m. and p.m. as they record time. Student understand a.m. as the time period from midnight until noon, and p.m. as the time period from noon to midnight, rather than daylight indicating a.m. and dark indicating p.m. Students are also exposed to a variety of common terms related to a.m. and p.m. (such as sunrise, sunset, dawn, dusk, evening, etc.) and common activities related to each time period.

Other considerations: Reference the Mathematics COVID-19 Gap Implementation Tool Grade 2

After this Unit
In Grade 3, students will determine the solutions to problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals.

In Grade 2, reading and writing time to the nearest one-minute increment on digital and analog clocks and distinguish between a.m. and p.m. is included in the Texas Response to Curriculum Focal Points (TxRCFP): Grade Level Connections which reinforces previous learning and/or provides development for future learning. This unit is supporting the development of the Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS): I. Numeric Reasoning B1, C1; II. Algebraic Reasoning D1, D2; V. Statistical Reasoning A1, C2; VII. Problem Solving and Reasoning A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, C1, D1, D2; VIII. Communication and Representation A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, C1, C2, C3; IX. Connections A1, A2, B1, B2, B3.

Research
According to Van de Walle (2006), “Learning to tell time has little to do with time measurement and more to do with the skills of learning to read a dial-type instrument” (p. 243). Sherman, Richardson, and Yard (2009) also discuss the challenge students face in learning to tell time due to the abstract nature of this measurement attribute and the need to work with indirect measurement scales. They conclude that students must be given numerous hands-on opportunities to practice reading clocks as they begin to understand the relationship between the hands and the numerals on a clock. Burny, Valcke, and Desoete (2009) discuss strategies and skills needed to be successful telling time on both digital and analog clocks. While reading a digital clock involves little more than direct reading of the displayed time, a true understanding of the meaning of the displayed time may remain a challenge. Reading time on an analog clock provides additional challenges and requires a different set of skills. These skills include directionality of clockwise time; increments of 1 minute, 5 minutes, and 60 minutes; 12 and 24 hour time periods; distinguishing between the minute hand, hour hand, and second hand; etc. “Analog clocks represent hours and minutes on a continuum on which numerical values and related intervals have to be interpreted as discrete steps, and make higher cognitive processing demands” (p. 10).

Burny, E., Valcke, M., & Desoete A. (2009). Towards an Agenda for Studying Learning and Instruction Focusing on Time-Related Competences in Children. Retrieved from http://users.ugent.be/~mvalcke/CV/review_time.pdf
Sherman, H., Richardson, L., & Yard, G. (2009). Teaching learners who struggle with mathematics: Systematic intervention and remediation. Columbus, OH: Pearson.
Texas Education Agency & Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas college and career readiness standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/index.cfm?objectid=E21AB9B0-2633-11E8-BC500050560100A9
Texas Education Agency. (2013). Texas response to curriculum focal points for kindergarten through grade 8 mathematics. Retrieved from https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/txrcfp-texas-response-curriculum-focal-points-k-8-mathematics-revised-2013
Van de Walle, J., & Lovin, L. (2006). Teaching student-centered mathematics grades k – 3. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

 Geometric, spatial, and measurement reasoning are foundational to visualizing, analyzing, and applying relationships within and between scale, shapes, quantities, and spatial relations in everyday life. Why is developing geometric, spatial, and measurement reasoning essential? How does geometric, spatial, and measurement reasoning affect how one sees and works in the world?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)
• Objects and events have unique measurable attributes that can be defined and described in order to make sense of their relationship to other objects and events in the world.
• How can time be described as a measurement?
• Why is it important to be able to tell time?
• In what situations might someone need to tell time?
• Attributes of objects and events can be measured using tools, and their measures can be described using units, in order to quantify a measurable attribute of the object or event.
• What tools can be used to measure time?
• What is the role of the …
• hour hand
• minute hand
• second hand
… on an analog clock?
• What units of measure are used to describe time?
• What relationships exist between …
• 1 minute and an hour?
• 5 minutes and an hour?
• 15 minutes and an hour?
• 30 minutes and an hour?
• 60 minutes and an hour?
• the numerals, hour hand, minute hand, and second hand on an analog clock?
• the numerals and symbols on a digital clock?
• the markings on an analog clock and a number line?
• How does a(n) …
• analog clock
• digital clock
…show when …
• an hour
• a half hour
• 5 minutes
• 1 minute
… has passed?
• How are an analog clock and a digital clock …
• similar?
• different?
• In what ways can a specific time be described …
• orally?
• in writing?
• What distinguishes a.m. from p.m.?
• What strategies aid in estimating time of day?
• What patterns exist in the continuous nature of time?
• What tasks might last …
• more than one hour?
• less than one hour?
• more than a half hour?
• less than a half hour?
• more than a minute?
• less than a minute?
• Measurement
• Measureable Attributes
• Time
• Measure
• Measurement tools
• Units of measure
• Associated Mathematical Processes
• Application
• Problem Solving Model
• Tools and Techniques
• Communication
• Representations
• Relationships
• Justification
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

#### MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

• Some students may think the numeral closest to the hour hand names the hour rather than the numeral that the hour hand has past.
• Some students may think a day consists of one full 12-hour rotation of the hour hand rather than understanding that a day consists of two full 12-hour rotations of the hour hand separated in to a.m. and p.m.
• Some students may think noon is 12 a.m. because it is light outside and midnight is p.m. because it is dark outside rather than understanding the actual time ranges for a.m. and p.m.
• Some students may think since half an hour is half-way around the clock, then half of an hour is half of 12, 6 minutes, rather than 30 minutes.
• Some students may think half of an hour is 50 minutes because half of a dollar is 50 cents rather than recognizing half of an hour as half of the 60 minutes in an hour, or 30 minutes.
• Some students may think a quarter of an hour is 25 minutes because a quarter of a dollar is 25 cents rather than recognizing a quarter of an hour as a quarter of the 60 minutes in an hour, or 15 minutes.

Underdeveloped Concepts:

• Some students may confuse the hour hand and the minute hand.
• Some students may struggle recording “o’clock” numerically as :00 on a digital display (e.g., twelve o’clock may be recorded as :12, 1:2, 12:, etc.).

#### Unit Vocabulary

• a.m. – the abbreviation for ante meridiem or ante meridian, meaning before noon or mid-day
• p.m. – the abbreviation for post meridiem or post meridian, meaning after noon or mid-day

Related Vocabulary:

 Afternoon Analog clock Clock face Clockwise Colon Dawn Daybreak Digital clock Dusk Evening Half past Hour hand Increment Measurement attribute Midnight Minute hand Morning Noon O’clock Quarter ‘til or quarter to Quarter past or quarter after Rotation Second hand Skip counting Sunrise Sunset
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board – Texas College and Career Readiness Standards

Texas Education Agency – Texas Response to Curriculum Focal Points for K-8 Mathematics Revised 2013

Texas Education Agency – Mathematics Curriculum

Texas Education Agency – STAAR Mathematics Resources

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Revised Mathematics TEKS: Vertical Alignment Charts

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Mathematics TEKS: Supporting Information

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Interactive Mathematics Glossary

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Resources Aligned to Grade 2 Mathematics TEKS

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), Texas Response to Curriculum Focal Points (TxRCFP) is labeled.
• A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
2.1 Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to:
2.1A Apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Apply

MATHEMATICS TO PROBLEMS ARISING IN EVERYDAY LIFE, SOCIETY, AND THE WORKPLACE

Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical problem situations within and between disciplines
• Everyday life
• Society
• Workplace

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxRCFP:
• Developing proficiency in the use of place value within the base-10 numeration system
• Using place value and properties of operations to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers within 1,000
• Measuring length
• Applying knowledge of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional solids, including exploration of early fraction concepts
• TxCCRS:
• VII.D. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Real-world problem solving
• VII.D.1. Interpret results of the mathematical problem in terms of the original real-world situation.
• IX.A. Connections – Connections among the strands of mathematics
• IX.A.1. Connect and use multiple key concepts of mathematics in situations and problems.
• IX.A.2. Connect mathematics to the study of other disciplines.
• IX.B. Connections – Connections of mathematics to nature, real-world situations, and everyday life
• IX.B.1. Use multiple representations to demonstrate links between mathematical and real-world situations.
• IX.B.2. Understand and use appropriate mathematical models in the natural, physical, and social sciences.
• IX.B.3. Know and understand the use of mathematics in a variety of careers and professions.
2.1B Use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution.

Use

A PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL THAT INCORPORATES ANALYZING GIVEN INFORMATION, FORMULATING A PLAN OR STRATEGY, DETERMINING A SOLUTION, JUSTIFYING THE SOLUTION, AND EVALUATING THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS AND THE REASONABLENESS OF THE SOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

• Problem-solving model
• Analyze given information
• Formulate a plan or strategy
• Determine a solution
• Justify the solution
• Evaluate the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxRCFP:
• Developing proficiency in the use of place value within the base-10 numeration system
• Using place value and properties of operations to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers within 1,000
• Measuring length
• Applying knowledge of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional solids, including exploration of early fraction concepts
• TxCCRS:
• I.B. Numeric Reasoning – Number sense and number concepts
• I.B.1. Use estimation to check for errors and reasonableness of solutions.
• V.A. Statistical Reasoning – Design a study
• V.A.1. Formulate a statistical question, plan an investigation, and collect data.
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.1. Analyze given information.
• VII.A.2. Formulate a plan or strategy.
• VII.A.3. Determine a solution.
• VII.A.4. Justify the solution.
• VII.A.5. Evaluate the problem-solving process.
• VII.D. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Real-world problem solving
• VII.D.2. Evaluate the problem-solving process.
2.1C

Select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems.

Select

TOOLS, INCLUDING REAL OBJECTS, MANIPULATIVES, PAPER AND PENCIL, AND TECHNOLOGY AS APPROPRIATE, AND TECHNIQUES, INCLUDING NUMBER SENSE AS APPROPRIATE, TO SOLVE PROBLEMS

Including, but not limited to:

• Appropriate selection of tool(s) and techniques to apply in order to solve problems
• Tools
• Real objects
• Manipulatives
• Paper and pencil
• Technology
• Techniques
• Number sense

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxRCFP:
• Developing proficiency in the use of place value within the base-10 numeration system
• Using place value and properties of operations to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers within 1,000
• Measuring length
• Applying knowledge of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional solids, including exploration of early fraction concepts
• TxCCRS:
• I.B. Numeric Reasoning – Number sense and number concepts
• I.B.1. Use estimation to check for errors and reasonableness of solutions.
• V.C. Statistical Reasoning – Analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions from data
• V.C.2. Analyze relationships between paired data using spreadsheets, graphing calculators, or statistical software.
2.1D Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate.

Communicate

MATHEMATICAL IDEAS, REASONING, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS USING MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS, INCLUDING SYMBOLS, DIAGRAMS, GRAPHS, AND LANGUAGE AS APPROPRIATE

Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications
• Multiple representations, as appropriate
• Symbols
• Diagrams
• Graphs
• Language

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxRCFP:
• Developing proficiency in the use of place value within the base-10 numeration system
• Using place value and properties of operations to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers within 1,000
• Measuring length
• Applying knowledge of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional solids, including exploration of early fraction concepts
• TxCCRS:
• II.D. Algebraic Reasoning – Representing relationships
• II.D.1. Interpret multiple representations of equations, inequalities, and relationships.
• II.D.2. Convert among multiple representations of equations, inequalities, and relationships.
• VIII.A. Communication and Representation – Language, terms, and symbols of mathematics
• VIII.A.1. Use mathematical symbols, terminology, and notation to represent given and unknown information in a problem.
• VIII.A.2. Use mathematical language to represent and communicate the mathematical concepts in a problem.
• VIII.A.3. Use mathematical language for reasoning, problem solving, making connections, and generalizing.
• VIII.B. Communication and Representation – Interpretation of mathematical work
• VIII.B.1. Model and interpret mathematical ideas and concepts using multiple representations.
• VIII.B.2. Summarize and interpret mathematical information provided orally, visually, or in written form within the given context.
• VIII.C. Communication and Representation – Presentation and representation of mathematical work
• VIII.C.1. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using symbols, diagrams, models, graphs, and words.
• VIII.C.2. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
• VIII.C.3. Explain, display, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communications.
• IX.B. Connections – Connections of mathematics to nature, real-world situations, and everyday life
• IX.B.1. Use multiple representations to demonstrate links between mathematical and real-world situations.
2.1E Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

Create, Use

REPRESENTATIONS TO ORGANIZE, RECORD, AND COMMUNICATE MATHEMATICAL IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

• Representations of mathematical ideas
• Organize
• Record
• Communicate
• Evaluation of the effectiveness of representations to ensure clarity of mathematical ideas being communicated
• Appropriate mathematical vocabulary and phrasing when communicating mathematical ideas

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxRCFP:
• Developing proficiency in the use of place value within the base-10 numeration system
• Using place value and properties of operations to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers within 1,000
• Measuring length
• Applying knowledge of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional solids, including exploration of early fraction concepts
• TxCCRS:
• VIII.B. Communication and Representation – Interpretation of mathematical work
• VIII.B.1. Model and interpret mathematical ideas and concepts using multiple representations.
• VIII.B.2. Summarize and interpret mathematical information provided orally, visually, or in written form within the given context.
• VIII.C. Communication and Representation – Presentation and representation of mathematical work
• VIII.C.1. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using symbols, diagrams, models, graphs, and words.
• VIII.C.2. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
2.1F Analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas.

Analyze

MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS TO CONNECT AND COMMUNICATE MATHEMATICAL IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical relationships
• Connect and communicate mathematical ideas
• Conjectures and generalizations from sets of examples and non-examples, patterns, etc.
• Current knowledge to new learning

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxRCFP:
• Developing proficiency in the use of place value within the base-10 numeration system
• Using place value and properties of operations to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers within 1,000
• Measuring length
• Applying knowledge of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional solids, including exploration of early fraction concepts
• TxCCRS:
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.1. Analyze given information.
• VIII.A. Communication and Representation – Language, terms, and symbols of mathematics
• VIII.A.1. Use mathematical symbols, terminology, and notation to represent given and unknown information in a problem.
• VIII.A.2. Use mathematical language to represent and communicate the mathematical concepts in a problem.
• VIII.A.3. Use mathematical language for reasoning, problem solving, making connections, and generalizing.
•  VIII.B. Communication and Representation – Interpretation of mathematical work
• VIII.B.1. Model and interpret mathematical ideas and concepts using multiple representations.
• VIII.C. Communication and Representation – Presentation and representation of mathematical work
• VIII.C.1. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using symbols, diagrams, models, graphs, and words.
• VIII.C.2. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
• VIII.C.3. Explain, display, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communications.
• IX.A. Connections – Connections among the strands of mathematics
• IX.A.1. Connect and use multiple key concepts of mathematics in situations and problems.
• IX.A.2. Connect mathematics to the study of other disciplines.
2.1G Display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.

Display, Explain, Justify

MATHEMATICAL IDEAS AND ARGUMENTS USING PRECISE MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE IN WRITTEN OR ORAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical ideas and arguments
• Validation of conclusions
• Displays to make work visible to others
• Diagrams, visual aids, written work, etc.
• Explanations and justifications
• Precise mathematical language in written or oral communication

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxRCFP:
• Developing proficiency in the use of place value within the base-10 numeration system
• Using place value and properties of operations to solve problems involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers within 1,000
• Measuring length
• Applying knowledge of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional solids, including exploration of early fraction concepts
• TxCCRS:
• VII.A. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Mathematical problem solving
• VII.A.4. Justify the solution.
• VII.B. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Proportional reasoning
• VII.B.1. Use proportional reasoning to solve problems that require fractions, ratios, percentages, decimals, and proportions in a variety of contexts using multiple representations.
• VII.C. Problem Solving and Reasoning – Logical reasoning
• VII.C.1. Develop and evaluate convincing arguments.
• VIII.A. Communication and Representation – Language, terms, and symbols of mathematics
• VIII.A.3. Use mathematical language for reasoning, problem solving, making connections, and generalizing.
• VIII.B. Communication and Representation – Interpretation of mathematical work
• VIII.B.1. Model and interpret mathematical ideas and concepts using multiple representations.
• VIII.B.2. Summarize and interpret mathematical information provided orally, visually, or in written form within the given context.
• VIII.C. Communication and Representation – Presentation and representation of mathematical work
• VIII.C.3. Explain, display, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communications.
2.9 Geometry and measurement. The student applies mathematical process standards to select and use units to describe length, area, and time. The student is expected to:
2.9G Read and write time to the nearest one-minute increment using analog and digital clocks and distinguish between a.m. and p.m.

TIME TO THE NEAREST ONE-MINUTE INCREMENT USING ANALOG AND DIGITAL CLOCKS

Including, but not limited to:

• Clocks used to describe the measurement attribute of time
• Analog clock
• A circular number line representing 12 one-hour increments, labeled 1 – 12
• Numbers increase in a clockwise direction (from left to right when starting at the top) around the circle.
• Each one-hour increment also represents 5 one-minute increments that are not labeled with numbers.
• One full rotation of the face of the clock
• One full rotation of the hour hand represents 12 hours.
• One full rotation of the minute hand represents 60 minutes.
• Skip counting by 5 from the 12 all the way around to the 12 equals 60 minutes.
• One full rotation of the second hand represents 60 seconds.
• Hour hand
• Shorter than the minute hand and second hand
• Moves slower than the minute hand and second hand
• One full rotation of the minute hand moves the hour hand to the next labeled hour.
• Minute hand
• Longer than the hour hand and usually about the same length as, but thicker than, the second hand
• Moves faster than the hour hand but slower than the second hand
• One full rotation of the minute hand moves the hour hand to the next labeled hour.
• Second hand
• Longer than the hour hand and usually about the same length as, but thinner than, the minute hand
• Moves faster than the hour hand and the minute hand
• One full rotation of the second hand moves the minute hand to the next minute increment.
• Not all analog clocks include a second hand
• Read and write time to the minute
• Hour determined by the location of the hour hand
• Hour determined by the labeled number when hour hand falls on a marked increment
• Hour determined by the labeled number just passed when hour hand falls between marked increments, regardless of which increment it is closest to
• Minute determined by the location of the minute hand
• Skip count by 5 for each numbered increment, and then count on by 1 for each unmarked minute increment.
• Digital clock
• Colon used to separate the hour from the minutes
• Hour (1 – 12) displayed to the left of the colon
• Hour increases by 1 for every 60 minutes
• Minutes (00 – 59) displayed to the right of the colon
• Minute increases by 1 for every 60 seconds
• One minute after 59 is displayed as :00
• Read and write time to the minute as displayed.
• Parts of hours represented with fraction names
• 15 minutes read and written as “a quarter past” or “a quarter after”
30 minutes read and written as “half past”
45 minutes read and written as “a quarter ‘til” or “a quarter to”
• Match time on an analog clock and a digital clock.

Distinguish

BETWEEN a.m. AND p.m.

Including, but not limited to:

• One day equals 24 hours.
• One 24 hour day is divided into two 12 hour time periods.
• a.m. – the abbreviation for ante meridiem or ante meridian, meaning before noon or mid-day
• Begins at midnight (12:00 a.m.), ends one minute before noon (11:59 a.m.)
• Possible abbreviations: a.m.; am; A.M.; AM
• p.m. – the abbreviation for post meridiem or post meridian, meaning after noon or mid-day
• Begins at noon (12:00 p.m.), ends one minute before midnight (11:59 p.m.)
• Possible abbreviations: p.m.; pm; P.M.; PM
• One full rotation of hours on the clock equals 12 hours.
• One full rotation for a.m. and one full rotation for p.m.
• Language related to 12:00
• 12:00 p.m. is noon or mid-day and occurs in the daylight.
• 12:00 a.m. is midnight and occurs in the dark.
• Language related to a.m.
• Morning, sunrise, dawn, daybreak, etc.
• Language related to p.m.
• Afternoon, evening, dusk, sunset, etc.

Note(s):