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Instructional Focus Document
English IV
TITLE : Unit 01: Exploring British Literature SUGGESTED DURATION : 20 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address word study, writing, and reading of literature written by British authors representing major literary periods to support the evaluation of multiple structures and complex elements specific to the genre. Various forms of text from classical, mythical, and traditional literature representing a range of diverse cultures and historical backgrounds provide the avenue for continued practice of inferring, summarizing, synthesizing, and providing evidence from text to support understanding during reading experiences. Students examine teacher selected and student selected literature based on individual interests and abilities, providing opportunities to make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres. An emphasis on the integration of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills allows the continued development of processes while providing a framework for college and career readiness.

In English III students evaluated how different literary elements shape the author’s portrayal of the plot and setting in works of fiction. During this unit, students analyze how complex plot structures, such as subplots and literary devices/techniques such as flashback, foreshadowing, and suspense, advance the action in works of fiction. Dilemmas and quandaries as revealed through character motivation, and behaviors are analyzed for effectiveness. Students write literary text to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and experiences using literary techniques that enhance plot, character development, mood, and tone. Writing for the comparison of universal themes across text fosters reading and writing connections and allows for development of more complex reading comprehension strategies and writing processes. Word study is inclusive of genre specific vocabulary, literary terms, and appropriate vocabulary from the literature. The emphasis of writing conventions and vocabulary provides a foundation for continual reflection on communicative accuracy. In Unit 02, students analyze poetry and drama using the skills acquired in this unit for the analysis of fiction.


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Authors use literary techniques and elements to heighten interest, appeal to an audience, and effectively communicate their message.

Elements – Characters, Plot, Subplot, Theme, Mood, Tone

Techniques – Flashback, Foreshadowing, Suspense, Allusions, Conceits

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Authors use conventions of written language to communicate clearly and effectively.

Conventions – Grammar, Punctuation, Capitalization, Spelling

Readers infer meaning about a variety of texts using textual evidence to support ideas.

Interpretation – Connections, Understanding

Perception – Thoughts

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Readers make connections in order to better understand themselves and the world around them by reading a variety of texts and genres.

Interpretation – Connections, Understanding

Elements – Narration, Characters, Setting, Theme

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

MISCONCEPTION:

  • Some students may believe that the English language is an original language. They may be surprised to learn how much of the English language evolved from other languages around the world such as the Anglo-Saxon, German, Latin, Greek, and French languages.

UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS:

  • Students may have difficulty recognizing and developing subplots at first. However, introducing them to subplots in literary works or in films will help students better understand that the purpose of a subplot is to enhance a character, theme, or plot; or amplify part of the genre of the work; and/or to move the course of the main story in a direction it could not dramatically go by itself.
  • An analytical response is different than a typical “reader response” in that the primary focus of an analytical response is cognitive analysis. A reader response may involve more emotional responses and personal connections.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Nuancea subtle distinction or fine detail
  • Universal themetranscends social and cultural boundaries and speaks to a common human experience
  • Subplot – a secondary or minor plot in a literary work which may contrast with the main plot, highlight it, or be completely unrelated
  • Moral dilemma/quandary – a state of perplexity or uncertainty, especially as to what to do (right and wrong)
  • Moodthe atmosphere or feeling created by the writer in a literary work or passage. Mood can be expressed through imagery, word choice, setting, voice, and theme. For example, the mood evoked in Edgar Allan Poe’s work is gloomy and dark.
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1A, E4.1B, E4.1C, E4.1D, E4.1E

Observation Data

 

Teacher-Student Conference

 

Checklist

 

Rubric

 

Writer’s Notebook

 

Reader’s Notebook

 

Vocabulary Notebook

 

Oral Quiz

 

Written Quiz

 

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Theme and Genre: E4.2A, E4.2C
Fiction: E4.5A, E4.5B, E4.5C, E4.5D
Sensory Language: E4.7A
Expository and Procedural Texts: E4.15C.i, E4.15C.ii, E4.15C.iii
Conventions: E4.17A, E4.17B
Teamwork: E4.26A
Comprehension Skills: E4.Fig19A, E4.Fig19B

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E4.13A, E4.13B, E4.13C, E4.13D, E4.13E
Literary Texts: E4.14A
Conventions: E4.17A, E4.17B
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E4.18A
Spelling: E4.19A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E4.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E4.1A Determine the meaning of technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.

Determine

THE MEANING OF TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words  

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E4.1B Analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings.

Analyze

TEXTUAL CONTEXT

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To draw conclusions

ABOUT THE NUANCE IN WORD MEANINGS

Nuance – a subtle distinction or fine detail

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Based on the textual context, use clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a selected word
  • Examine the part of speech and the message of the section of text to help identify the nuance in the word’s meaning
  • Draw a conclusion about the nuance (e.g., subtle shades of meaning, gradations of meaning) in the word’s meaning
E4.1C Use the relationship between words encountered in analogies to determine their meanings (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, connotation/denotation).

Use

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORDS ENCOUNTERED IN ANALOGIES

Analogy – a vocabulary exercise in which an association between a concept and its attribute is present (e.g., hot:cold as north:_____)

To determine

THEIR MEANINGS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the word relationship (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, part to whole, whole to part, function, description, connotation/denotation)
  • Determine the meaning by examining the relationship
E4.1D Analyze and explain how the English language has developed and been influenced by other languages.

Analyze, Explain

HOW THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE HAS DEVELOPED AND BEEN INFLUENCED BY OTHER LANGUAGES

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Use resources to identify word origins to aid in understanding word meanings
  • Explain the relationship between word origins and their influence on the development of the English language
E4.1E Use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, histories of language, books of quotations, and other related references (printed or electronic) as needed.

Use

PRINTED OR ELECTRONIC REFERENCES AS NEEDED

Including, but not limited to:

  • General and specialized dictionaries
  • Thesauri
  • Histories of language
  • Books of quotations
  • Other related references

Specialized dictionary  subject dictionary (e.g., medical dictionary)

E4.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
E4.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e. g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E4.Fig19B Make complex inferences (e.g., inductive and deductive) about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

E4.2 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THEME IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the theme in various literary genres (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT GENRE IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish characteristics of various genres    

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports the theme in various literary genres

 

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.C - English/Language Arts/Reading. Describe, analyze, and evaluate information within and across literary and other texts from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
E4.2A Compare and contrast works of literature that express a universal theme.

Compare, Contrast

WORKS OF LITERATURE THAT EXPRESS A UNIVERSAL THEME

Universal theme  transcends social and cultural boundaries and speaks to a common human experience

Possible examples of universal themes:

  • Wealth does not dictate man’s importance.
  • The beauty of a person is not solely defined by outward appearance.
E4.2C Relate the characters, setting, and theme of a literary work to the historical, social, and economic ideas of its time.

Relate

THE CHARACTERS, SETTING, AND THEME OF A LITERARY WORK TO THE HISTORICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC IDEAS OF ITS TIME

Theme  the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. Themes are ideas or concepts that relate to morals and values and speak to the human experience.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Consider the characters, setting, and theme of a literary work
  • Consider the historical, social, and economic context of the literary work
  • Relate the identified literary elements to the determined historical, social, and economic context by identifying influences, similarities, and other connections

Context  the set of circumstances that surround a particular event, situation, character, and so forth

E4.5 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions
ABOUT THE STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF FICTION
Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole story
  • Make inferences related to a part of the story
  • Make inferences related to structure of fiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to particular elements of fiction
    • Character – actions, thoughts, motivations, and qualities/traits
    • Point of view
    • Setting
    • Plot
  • Make inferences related to literary techniques (refer to Sensory Language Expectations for specific grade appropriate examples)

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in fiction
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E4.5A Analyze how complex plot structures (e.g., subplots) and devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashbacks, suspense) function and advance the action in a work of fiction.

Analyze

HOW COMPLEX PLOT STRUCTURES AND DEVICES FUNCTION AND ADVANCE THE ACTION IN A WORK OF FICTION

Plot  the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three main parts: rising action, climax, and falling action

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify complex plot structures (e.g., subplots) and literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashbacks, suspense)
  • Consider the function of the structures and devices
  • Explain how the structures and devices advance the action

Subplot  a secondary or minor plot in a literary work which may contrast with the main plot, highlight it, or be completely unrelated

NOTE:
Students should also be able to identify how character thoughts and actions contribute to plot development.

E4.5B Analyze the moral dilemmas and quandaries presented in works of fiction as revealed by the underlying motivations and behaviors of the characters.

Analyze

THE MORAL DILEMMAS AND QUANDARIES PRESENTED IN WORKS OF FICTION AS REVEALED BY THE UNDERLYING MOTIVATIONS AND BEHAVIORS OF THE CHARACTERS

Moral dilemma/quandary  a state of perplexity or uncertainty, especially as to what to do (right and wrong)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the moral dilemmas of characters in the selected works of fiction
  • Identify the underlying motivations and behaviors of characters
  • Describe how the underlying motivations and behaviors reveal the dilemma/quandary.

Possible examples of motivations of characters for decision, action, and changes:

  • Intellectual, emotional, physical, status-seeking

Note:
Students can identify characterization often through analysis if traits, actions, and thoughts.

E4.5C Compare and contrast the effects of different forms of narration across various genres of fiction.

Compare, Contrast

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF NARRATION ACROSS VARIOUS GENRES OF FICTION

Point of view  the perspective from which the events in the story are told. The author may choose any of the following:

  • Third-person omniscient  the narrator tells the story in third person from an all-knowing perspective. The knowledge is not limited by any one character’s view or behavior, as the narrator knows everything about all characters.
  • Third-person limited  the narrator restricts his knowledge to one character’s view or behavior
  • Objective  the narrator reveals only the actions and words without the benefit of the inner thoughts and feelings
  • First person/subjective  the narrator restricts the perspective to that of only one character to tell the story
  • Limited  the story is told through the point of view of a single character and is limited to what he or she sees, hears, feels, or is told

Possible examples of genres of fiction:

  • Fantasy, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction, suspense, western
E4.5D Demonstrate familiarity with works of fiction by British authors from each major literary period.

Demonstrate

FAMILIARITY WITH WORKS OF FICTION BY BRITISH AUTHORS FROM EACH MAJOR LITERARY PERIOD

E4.7 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

HOW AN AUTHOR’S SENSORY LANGUAGE CREATES IMAGERY IN LITERARY TEXT AND PROVIDE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to sensory language
  • Make inferences related to figurative language (e.g., metaphor, simile, personification)
  • Draw conclusions about how sensory language creates imagery and symbolism

Sensory language – words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory language is language that appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

Figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices

Literary device – a specific convention or structure—such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing—that is employed by the author to produce a given effect.  Literary devices are important aspects of an author’s style.

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

E4.7A Analyze how the author's patterns of imagery, literary allusions, and conceits reveal theme, set tone, and create meaning in metaphors, passages, and literary works.

Analyze

HOW THE AUTHOR’S PATTERNS OF

  • IMAGERY
  • LITERARY ALLUSIONS
  • CONCEITS

REVEAL THEME, SET TONE, AND CREATE MEANING IN METAPHORS, PASSAGES, AND LITERARY WORKS

Allusion  a reference within a literary work to another work of literature, art, or real event. The reference is often brief and implied.

Conceit  an extended metaphor in poetry or literature which is often fanciful or elaborate (e.g., Our eye-beams twisted, and did thread/Our eyes upon one double string in John Donne’s “The Extasie)

Extended metaphor  a metaphor in which the comparison is carried through several lines or even the entire literary work

Tone  the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing (e.g., serious, humorous, logical, emotional)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the patterns of imagery, literary allusions (classical, mythological, biblical), and conceits in a selected text
  • Determine and then explain how the identified patterns reveal theme, set tone, and create meaning in  the selected text
E4.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.13A

Plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea.

Plan

A FIRST DRAFT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews, etc.)
  • Select a focused topic
  • Determine the purpose or intended meaning of the topic
  • Select a correct genre for the purpose and multiple audiences
  • Generate and categorize ideas and details about the selected topic (e.g., webbing, graphic organizer, listing, etc.)

Purpose – the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Genre – the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Examples of purposes for writing:

  • To entertain
  • To explain
  • To describe
  • To inform
  • To persuade
  • To respond

Develop

A CONTROLLING IDEA

Controlling idea – the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.

Note:
This is the first step in the writing process, often referred to as prewriting or planning.

E4.13B

Structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices to convey meaning.

Structure

IDEAS IN A SUSTAINED WAY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, and/or lists as applicable
  • Select a form or structure appropriate to the genre, purpose, and audience

Develop

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In timed and open-ended situations
  • Develop a draft using a selected organizational pattern appropriate to the genre, audience, and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the thesis or controlling idea of the piece
  • Develop a coherent draft that is focused and well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Include rhetorical devices as appropriate to convey meaning

Retorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process. This SE combines prewriting (making a plan) and writing a draft (putting thoughts onto paper). The focus is on content, not mechanics.

E4.13C Revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases.

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To clarify meaning
  • To achieve specific rhetorical purposes
  • To achieve consistency of tone
  • To achieve logical organization

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

By rearranging

THE WORDS, SENTENCES, AND PARAGRAPHS TO EMPLOY TROPES, SCHEMES

Trope – nonliteral or figurative language

Possible examples of tropes:

  • Metaphor – a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.)
  • Simile – a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)
  • Analogy – figurative language that makes comparisons in unexpected ways. A literary analogy is often an extended comparison. The purpose is to show similarities in process or in structure. For example, an author might compare a visit to a flea market to an all-you-can-eat buffet, carrying the comparison through a paragraph, section of the work, or an entire piece.
  • Hyperbole – an intentional and extreme exaggeration for emphasis or effect (e.g., This book weighs a ton.)
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Irony – a literary technique used to create meaning that seems to contradict the literal meaning or events (e.g., verbal, situational, dramatic)

Scheme – a figure of speech that concerns word order, syntax letters, and sounds, as opposed to the meaning of words

Possible examples of schemes:

  • Parallelism/parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Antithesis – the direct opposite; the rhetorical contrast using parallels within a sentence (e.g., Give me liberty or give me deat.)
  • Inverted word order
  • Repetition of words
  • Reversed structures

By adding

TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

E4.13D Edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling.

Edit

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conventions/Grammar (refer to E4.17AB)
  • Capitalization and Punctuation (refer to E4.18A)
  • Spelling (refer to E4.19A)
  • Previously taught expectations in grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

Note:
This is the fourth step in the writing process. The focus is on grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E4.13E Revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

Revise

FINAL DRAFT IN RESPONSE TO FEEDBACK FROM PEERS AND TEACHER

  • Refer to E4.13C for revision expectations

Publish

WRITTEN WORK FOR APPROPRIATE AUDIENCES

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use legible handwriting with appropriate spacing and/or use available technology to publish written work
  • Share published work with an appropriate audience

Note:
This is the last step in the writing process.

E4.14 Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.14A Write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, a clear theme, complex and non-stereotypical characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense), devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone.

Write

AN ENGAGING STORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • With a well-developed conflict and resolution
  • Interesting and believable characters
  • A range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the plot
  • Sensory details that define the mood or tone

Literary strategies and devices include, but are not limited to:

  • Dialogue – the lines spoken between characters in fiction or a play
  • Suspense – the sustained interest created by the buildup of events and delayed resolution of the plot’s conflict

Plot – the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three parts: rising action, climax, and falling action

Conflict – in literature, the opposition of persons or forces that brings about dramatic action central to the plot of a story. Conflict may be internal, as a psychological conflict within a character, or external (e.g., man versus man, man versus nature, or man versus society).

Resolution – the point in a literary work at which the story’s problem is worked out

Mood – the atmosphere or feeling created by the writer in a literary work or passage. Mood can be expressed through imagery, word choice, setting, voice, and theme. For example, the mood evoked in Edgar Allan Poe’s work is gloomy and dark.

Tone – the author’s particular attitude toward his/her subject, either stated or implied in the writing

E4.15 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.15C

Write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that:

Write

AN INTERPRETATION OF A LITERARY TEXT

Interpretative response – an analysis of a piece of literature in which the writer takes apart what was written by another author and explains it

E4.15C.i advances a clear thesis statement

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Including, but not limited to:

  • Present a thesis – thesis statement
  • Advance a thesis by focusing on the topic, theme, or argument
E4.15C.ii addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay including references to and commentary on quotations from the text

Note:
Refer to E4.15A-vii.

E4.15C.iii analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices

Aesthetic effect – the use of language as an artistic medium to create imagery that evokes sensory perception. Texts in which language can be used aesthetically include fiction, drama, films, and poetry.

Stylistic device – a technique used by an author to express meaning, ideas, or feelings in a written work (e.g., metaphor, simile, alliteration, etc.). The use of these techniques is related to the tone of the piece and the style of the author.

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Possible examples of rhetorical devices:

  • Overstatement
  • Understatement
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Hyperbole
  • Analogies
  • Irony
  • Figurative language
E4.17 Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E4.17A Use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases).

Use, Understand

THE FUNCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLAUSES AND PHRASES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Adjectival clause – a group of words with a subject and a verb that acts as an adjective by describing a noun or pronoun (e.g., the young man who is sitting near the door is my son). Relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) usually introduce the adjectival clause but clauses may also begin with relative adverbs (when, where, why).
  • Adjectival phrase – a prepositional or participle phrase that acts like an adjective and modifies a noun or a pronoun (e.g., The dog, showing off, is mine.)
  • Noun clause (nominal clause) – a dependent clause that functions as a noun within a sentence (e.g., I know that the students studied for the test. I wonder what is making Corrie so unhappy.)
  • Noun phrase – begins with a noun or pronoun and is followed by modifiers. It has a subject, but not a predicate (e.g., A large banana on the table was taken by the young child.)
  • Adverbial clause – a group of words with a subject and a verb that acts as an adverb by modifying a verb, adjective, or another adverb (e.g., I will go home when the party is over.)
  • Adverbial phrase – a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb (e.g., The tennis courts stay open late into the evening.)
E4.17B Use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

Use

A VARIETY OF CORRECTLY STRUCTURED SENTENCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Compound sentence – a sentence composed of at least two independent clauses linked with a conjunction or semicolon (e.g., Sam talked, and Emma listened.)
  • Complex sentence – a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (e.g., I cleaned the room when the guests left.)
  • Compound-complex sentence – a compound sentence with at least one dependent clause (e.g., Dogs bark and birds sing when they are happy.)
E4.18 Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E4.18A Correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

Use

CONVENTIONS OF PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION CORRECTLY AND CONSISTENTLY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Proper and common nouns
  • Quotations
  • Other previously learned standards for capitalization
E4.19 Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E4.19A Spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

Spell

CORRECTLY USING VARIOUS RESOURCES TO DETERMINE AND CHECK CORRECT SPELLINGS

Possible examples of resources:

  • Printed or electronic dictionary
  • Printed or electronic thesaurus
E4.26 Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Speaking
TxCCRS E/LAS.III.A - English/Language Arts/Speaking. Understand the elements of communication both in informal group discussions and formal presentations (e.g., accuracy, relevance, rhetorical features, and organization of information).
TxCCRS Listening
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Work habits
E4.26A Participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

Participate

PRODUCTIVELY IN TEAMS

Offering

IDEAS OR JUDGMENTS THAT ARE PURPOSEFUL IN MOVING THE TEAM TOWARD GOALS

Asking

RELEVANT AND INSIGHTFUL QUESTIONS

Tolerating

A RANGE OF POSITIONS AND AMBIGUITY IN DECISION–MAKING

Evaluating

THE WORK OF THE GROUP BASED ON AGREED-UPON CRITERIA

The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 04/01/2016
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