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Instructional Focus Document
English III
TITLE : Unit 01: Touring American Literature SUGGESTED DURATION : 25 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address word study, writing, and reading using American literature representing major literary periods to support the evaluation of multiple structures and complex elements specific to the genre. Various forms of literary text from classical, mythical, and traditional literature representing a range of diverse cultures and historical backgrounds from 20th and 21st century novels, plays, literary nonfiction and films provide the avenue for students to make inferences, summarize, synthesize, and provide textual evidence while reading. Students examine selected literature and related media to make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres. An emphasis on the integration of reading and writing skills supports the continued development of processes, while providing a framework for college and career readiness.

Prior to this unit, the English II TEKS required students to analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole in a variety of works of fiction. During this unit, students evaluate how different literary elements shape the author’s portrayal of the plot and setting through connections outside the reading (e.g., other texts, world events, personal experiences). Students evaluate the author’s use of setting and how it connects to the mood of a piece, as well as analyze the author’s use of sensory details to create mood and enhance the theme of the writing. Students write analytical essays to demonstrate an understanding of literary elements. Students write fictional stories to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and experiences using literary techniques that enhance plot, character development, mood, and tone. The study of word etymology supports understanding of how vocabulary of American spoken English has been influenced by the influx of various cultures. The emphasis of writing conventions and vocabulary will provide a foundation for continual reflection on communicative accuracy. In English IV, students analyze how complex plot structures and techniques function, and how they advance the action in a work of fiction.


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Understanding the connections between literary elements facilitates the reader’s ability to make meaning of text.

Elements – Plot, Setting, Mood, Characters

Interpretation – Connections, Meaning

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Authors use literary techniques and elements to heighten interest, appeal to an audience, and effectively communicate their message.

Elements – Plot, Mood, Theme

Techniques – Sensory Details, Dialogue, Suspense

Interpretation – Message

Authors use literary techniques and elements to heighten interest, appeal to an audience, and effectively communicate their message.


Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Authors use conventions of written language to communicate clearly and effectively.

Conventions – Grammar, Punctuation, Capitalization, Spelling

Readers infer meaning about a variety of texts using textual evidence to support ideas.

Interpretation – Connections, Understanding

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

MISCONCEPTIONS:

  • Students may believe that they can give their own opinions to answer questions without providing textual evidence as support. However, for open-ended questions, students must provide text evidence from the selections provided.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 
  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts.
  • Theme – the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. Themes are ideas or concepts that relate to morals and values and speak to the human experience.
  • Literary device – a specific convention or structure—such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing—that is employed by the author to produce a given effect. Literary devices are important aspects of an author’s style. 
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E3.1A, E3.1B, E3.1C, E3.1D, E3.1E

Observation Data

 

Teacher-Student Conference

 

Checklist

 

Rubric

 

Writer’s Notebook

 

Reader’s Notebook

 

Vocabulary Notebook

 

Oral Quiz

 

Written Quiz

 

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Theme and Genre: E3.2A, E3.2B, E3.2C
Fiction: E3.5A, E3.5B, E3.5C, E3.5D
Literary Nonfiction: E3.6A
Sensory Language: E3.7A
Media Literacy: E3.12A, E3.12D
Expository and Procedural Texts: E3.15C.i, E3.15C.ii, E3.15C.iii
Speaking: E3.25A
Teamwork: E3.26A
Comprehension Skills: E3.Fig19A, E3.Fig19B

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E3.13A, E3.13B, E3.13C, E3.13D, E3.13E
Literary Texts: E3.14A
Expository and Procedural Texts: E3.15A, E3.15A.i, E3.15A.ii, E3.15A.iii, E3.15A.iv, E3.15A.v, E3.15C.i, E3.15C.ii, E3.15C.iii
Conventions: E3.17A, E3.17B
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E3.18A
Spelling: E3.19A
Speaking: E3.25A
Teamwork: E3.26A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E3.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E3.1A Determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.
Supporting Standard

Determine

THE MEANING OF GRADE-LEVEL TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER LINGUISTIC ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E3.1B Analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

TEXTUAL CONTEXT

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To draw conclusions

ABOUT THE NUANCE IN WORD MEANINGS

Nuance – a subtle distinction or fine detail

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Based on the textual context, use clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a selected word
  • Examine the part of speech and the message of the section of text to help identify the nuance in the word’s meaning
  • Draw a conclusion about the nuance (e.g., subtle shades of meaning, gradations of meaning) in the word’s meaning

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – B1 – Identify new words and concepts acquired though study of their relationships to other words and concepts.

CDS II. Foundational Skills – A2 – Use a variety of strategies to understand the meaning of new words.

E3.1C Infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships.
Supporting Standard

Infer

WORD MEANING THROUGH THE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF ANALOGIES AND OTHER WORD RELATIONSHIPS

Inference – connecting bits of information to make a logical guess. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. A subtle inference is one in which the bits of information are not as easily connected.

Analogy – a vocabulary exercise in which an association between a concept and its attribute is present (e.g., hot:cold as north:_____)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify an analogy
  • Determine the word relationship (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, part to whole, whole to part, function, description, homographs, homophones)
  • Infer the meaning by examining the relationship
E3.1D Recognize and use knowledge of cognates in different languages and of word origins to determine the meaning of words.
Supporting Standard

Recognize, Use

KNOWLEDGE OF COGNATES IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES AND OF WORD ORIGINS

Cognate – a word related in meaning and form to a word in another language or languages because of a common origin (e.g., mother [English], moeder [Dutch], moder [Danish], mater [Latin], matr [Sanskrit], etc.)

To determine

THE MEANING OF WORDS

E3.1E Use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, histories of language, books of quotations, and other related references (printed or electronic) as needed.
Readiness Standard

Use

PRINTED OR ELECTRONIC REFERENCES AS NEEDED

Including, but not limited to:

  • General and specialized dictionaries
  • Thesauri
  • Glossaries
  • Histories of language
  • Books of quotations
  • Other related references

Specialized dictionary – subject dictionary (e.g., medical dictionary)

Note:
This is the first time histories of language and books of quotations are introduced.

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – B3 – Use reference guides to confirm the meanings of new words or concepts.

E3.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
E3.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e.g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E3.Fig19B Make complex inferences (e.g., inductive and deductive) about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
Readiness Standard (Fiction, Expository)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama, Persuasive)

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

STAAR Note:
Paired passage questions associated with (TEKS number) assess similarities and differences in ideas, details, theme, mood, tone, organization, and purpose within or across texts of various genres (e.g., expository-expository, expository-fiction, poem-expository, persuasive-poem). Making connections may require inferential thinking.

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – A4 – Draw and support complex inferences from text to summarize, draw conclusions, and distinguish facts from simple assertions and opinions.

CDS II. Foundational Skills – A5 – Analyze textual information critically.

E3.2 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THEME IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the theme in various literary genres (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT GENRE IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish characteristics of various genres

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports the theme in various literary genres

 

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.C - English/Language Arts/Reading. Describe, analyze, and evaluate information within and across literary and other texts from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
E3.2A Analyze the way in which the theme or meaning of a selection represents a view or comment on the human condition.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

THE WAY IN WHICH THE THEME OR MEANING OF A SELECTION REPRESENTS A VIEW OR COMMENT ON THE HUMAN CONDITION

Theme – the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. Themes are ideas or concepts that relate to morals and values and speak to the human experience.

Possible examples of themes:

  • Social influences determine a person’s destiny.
  • Good friends are important.
  • People go through trials before they mature.

Possible examples of human conditions:

  • Lack of human rights
  • Mistreatment of children

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the theme
  • Identify the human condition represented in the text
  • Explain how the author’s view or comment on the human condition is represented in the text

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – C2 – Analyze themes, structures, and elements of myths, traditional narratives, and classical and contemporary literature.

II. Reading – D1 – Describe insights gained about oneself, others, or the world from reading specific texts.

E3.2B

Relate the characters and text structures of mythic, traditional, and classical literature to 20th and 21st century American novels, plays, or films.


Supporting Standard

Relate

THE CHARACTERS AND TEXT STRUCTURES OF MYTHIC, TRADITIONAL, AND CLASSICAL LITERATURE TO 20TH AND 21ST CENTURY AMERICAN NOVELS, PLAYS, OR FILMS

Mythic literature – a body of traditional or sacred stories to explain a belief or a natural happening

Traditional literature – stories that were originally oral and later became written text

Classical literature – literature that is widely acknowledged for its outstanding and enduring qualities

E3.2C Relate the main ideas found in a literary work to primary source documents from its historical and cultural setting.
Supporting Standard

Relate

THE MAIN IDEAS FOUND IN A LITERARY WORK TO PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENTS FROM ITS HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL SETTING

Primary source – a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred and created by someone who was present at the event. Examples of primary source documents include letters, speeches, diaries, surveys, fieldwork, and personal interviews.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify main ideas in a literary work
  • Identify primary source documents from the historical and setting of the literary work
  • Relate main ideas to primary source documents by identifying influences, similarities, and other connections
E3.5 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions
ABOUT THE STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF FICTION
Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole story
  • Make inferences related to a part of the story
  • Make inferences related to structure of fiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to particular elements of fiction
    • Character – actions, thoughts, motivations, and qualities/traits
    • Point of view
    • Setting
    • Plot
  • Make inferences related to literary techniques (refer to Sensory Language Expectations for specific grade appropriate examples)

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in fiction

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E3.5A Evaluate how different literary elements (e.g., figurative language, point of view) shape the author's portrayal of the plot and setting in works of fiction.
Readiness Standard

Evaluate

HOW DIFFERENT LITERARY ELEMENTS SHAPE THE AUTHOR’S PORTRAYAL OF PLOT AND SETTING IN WORKS OF FICTION

Plot – the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three main parts: rising action, climax, and falling action

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify literary elements in the text, including figurative language and point of view
  • Explain the effectiveness of the literary elements on the development of plot and setting.

NOTE:
Students should also be able to identify how character thoughts and actions contribute to plot development.

E3.5B Analyze the internal and external development of characters through a range of literary devices.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHARACTERS THROUGH A RANGE OF LITERARY DEVICES

Internal response of a character – a response demonstrated through inner thoughts and feelings

External response of the characters – a response demonstrated by the character through speech or actions

Literary device – a specific convention or structure—such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing—that is employed by the author to produce a given effect. Literary devices are important aspects of an author’s style.

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the internal development of a character through his/her feelings, thoughts, emotions, motivation, etc.
  • Identify the external development of a character through his/her actions, relationships, dialogues, etc.
  • Explain how literary devices enhance the internal and external development of a character

Possible examples of literary devices:

  • Dialogue, descriptions of thoughts, irony, foreshadowing, imagery

Possible examples of motivations of characters for decision, action, and changes:

  • Intellectual, emotional, physical, status-seeking

Note:
Students can identify characterization often through analysis if traits, actions, and thoughts.

E3.5C Analyze the impact of narration when the narrator's point of view shifts from one character to another.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

THE IMPACT OF NARRATION WHEN THE NARRATOR’S POINT OF VIEW SHIFTS FROM ONE CHARACTER TO ANOTHER

Point of view – the perspective from which the events in the story are told. The author may choose any of the following:

  • Third-person omniscient the narrator tells the story in third person from an all-knowing perspective. The knowledge is not limited by any one character’s view or behavior, as the narrator knows everything about all characters.
  • Third-person limited the narrator restricts his knowledge to one character’s view or behavior
  • Objective – the narrator reveals only the actions and words without the benefit of the inner thoughts and feelings
  • First person/subjective – the narrator restricts the perspective to that of only one character to tell the story
  • Limited – the story is told through the point of view of a single character and is limited to what he or she sees, hears, feels, or is told

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the narrator(s)
  • Identify the shifts in narration from one character to another
  • Describe the differences in narration when there are shifts in narrator’s point of view

Note:
Shift in point of view refers to change in narrator.

E3.5D Demonstrate familiarity with works by authors in American fiction from each major literary period.

Demonstrate

FAMILIARITY WITH WORKS BY AUTHORS IN AMERICAN FICTION FROM EACH MAJOR LITERARY PERIOD

E3.6 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw Conclusions

ABOUT THE VARIED STRUCTURAL PATTERNS AND FEATURES OF LITERARY NONFICTION

  • Make inferences related to the whole literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to a part of the literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to the structure of literary nonfiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to features (elements) of literary nonfiction (e.g., characterization, point of view, setting, events)
  • Make inferences related to specific details in literary nonfiction text including author's purpose

Respond by providing

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in literary nonfiction texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
TxCCRS Evaluate the use of both literal and figurative language to inform and shape the perceptions of readers.
TxCCRS Identify and analyze how an author's use of language appeals to the senses, creates imagery, and suggests mood.
E3.6A

Analyze how rhetorical techniques (e.g., repetition, parallel structure, understatement, overstatement) in literary essays, true life adventures, and historically important speeches influence the reader, evoke emotions, and create meaning.


Supporting Standard

Analyze

HOW RHETORICAL TECHNIQUES IN

  • LITERARY ESSAYS

INFLUENCE THE READER, EVOKE EMOTIONS, AND CREATE MEANING

Literary essay – an essay that relates an actual experience, event, or perspective on a topic using the techniques and elements of literary writing

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Possible examples of rhetorical techniques:

  • Repetition – the act of repeating for emphasis
  • Parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Overstatement – an exaggerated statement

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify rhetorical techniques in selected text
  • Consider and then explain the way(s)  the technique(s) influenced the reader, created meaning, and/or evoked emotion
E3.7 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

HOW AN AUTHOR’S SENSORY LANGUAGE CREATES IMAGERY IN LITERARY TEXT AND PROVIDE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to sensory language
  • Make inferences related to figurative language (e.g., metaphor, simile, personification)
  • Draw conclusions about how sensory language creates imagery and symbolism

Sensory language – words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory language is language that appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

Figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices

Literary device – a specific convention or structure—such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing—that is employed by the author to produce a given effect.  Literary devices are important aspects of an author’s style.

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

E3.7A Analyze the meaning of classical, mythological, and biblical allusions in words, phrases, passages, and literary works.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

THE MEANING OF ALLUSIONS IN

  • WORDS
  • PHRASES
  • PASSAGES
  • LITERARY WORKS

Allusion – a reference within a literary work to another work of literature, art, or real event. The reference is often brief and implied.

Mythological allusion – is a direct or indirect reference to a character or event in mythology (e.g., Shakespeare’s frequent allusions to Hercules in his plays)

Biblical allusion – a reference to a character or event from the Bible. (For example, referring to a character as a “Judas” is an allusion to the betrayal of Jesus by Judas Iscariot.)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the allusion
  • Identify the type of allusion (classical, mythological, or biblical)
  • Describe the meaning of the allusion
E3.12 Reading/Media Literacy.

Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

Use

COMPREHENSION SKILLS

Analyze

HOW WORDS, IMAGES, GRAPHICS, AND SOUNDS WORK TOGETHER IN VARIOUS FORMS TO IMPACT MEANING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret words, images, and sounds in media and consider their effect on meaning
  • Determine the purpose of embedded media
  • Determine how details within embedded media supports information in the text

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

During instruction, integrate media with other unit standards (e.g., literary text, writing) rather than teaching it in isolation.

TxCCRS Listening
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Reasoning
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Technology
E3.12A Evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

HOW MESSAGES PRESENTED IN MEDIA REFLECT SOCIAL AND CULTURAL VIEWS IN WAYS DIFFERENT FROM TRADITIONAL TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify the message(s) presented in media and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Identify the message(s) presented in a traditional text and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Examine and then explain the differences in how the identified messages and social and cultural views are presented in media versus traditional texts

Possible forms of media include:

  • Advertisement – print and electronic (e.g., flyers, brochures, posters, signs)
  • Newspaper
  • Magazine
  • Radio program (songs, lyrical music)
  • Web page – online information
  • Televised news
  • Documentary
  • Photograph (with or without caption)

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – A11 – Identify, analyze, and evaluate similarities and differences in how multiple texts present information, argue a position or relate a theme.

E3.12D Evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CHANGES IN FORMALITY AND TONE ACROSS VARIOUS MEDIA FOR DIFFERENT AUDIENCES AND PURPOSES

Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages

Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet  or source (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • View media presentations on the same subject but in different forms of media (e.g., the same news story relayed on a television network, a local newspaper and a national news magazine)
  • Identify formality and tone in each presentation
  • Examine and then explain how the formality and tone change for different audiences and purposes
E3.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E3.13A Plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea.

Plan

A FIRST DRAFT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews, etc.)
  • Select a focused topic
  • Determine the purpose or intended meaning of the topic
  • Select a correct genre for the purpose and multiple audiences
  • Generate and categorize ideas and details about the selected topic (e.g., webbing, graphic organizer, listing, etc.)

Purpose – the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Genre – the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Examples of purposes for writing:

  • To entertain
  • To explain
  • To describe
  • To inform
  • To persuade
  • To respond

Develop

A THESIS OR CONTROLLING IDEA

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Controlling idea – the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.

Note:
This is the first step in the writing process, often referred to as prewriting or planning.

TxCCRS Note:
I. Writing – A1 – Determine effective approaches, forms, and rhetorical techniques that demonstrate understanding of the writer’s purpose and audience.

Writing – A3 – Evaluate relevance, quality, sufficiency, and depth of preliminary ideas and information, organize material generated, and formulate a thesis.

E3.13B

Structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices to convey meaning.


Readiness Standard

Structure

IDEAS IN A SUSTAINED WAY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, and/or lists as applicable
  • Select a form or structure appropriate to the genre, purpose and audience

Develop

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In timed and open-ended situations
  • Develop a draft using a selected organizational pattern appropriate to the genre, audience, and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the thesis or controlling idea of the piece
  • Develop a coherent draft that is focused and well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Include rhetorical devices as appropriate to convey meaning

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process. This SE combines prewriting (making a plan) and writing a draft (putting thoughts onto paper). The focus is on content, not mechanics.

TxCCRS Note:
I. Writing – A2 – Generate ideas and gather information relevant to the topic and purpose, keeping careful records of outside sources.

Writing – A3 – Evaluate relevance, quality, sufficiency, and depth of preliminary ideas and information, organize material generated, and formulate a thesis.

E3.13C Revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases.
Readiness Standard

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To clarify meaning
  • To achieve specific rhetorical purposes
  • To achieve consistency of tone
  • To achieve logical organization

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

By rearranging

THE WORDS, SENTENCES, AND PARAGRAPHS TO EMPLOY TROPES, SCHEMES

Trope – nonliteral or figurative language

Possible examples of tropes:

  • Metaphor – a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.)
  • Simile – a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)
  • Analogy – figurative language that makes comparisons in unexpected ways. A literary analogy is often an extended comparison. The purpose is to show similarities in process or in structure. For example, an author might compare a visit to a flea market to an all-you-can-eat buffet, carrying this comparison through a paragraph, a section of the work, or an entire piece.
  • Hyperbole – an intentional and extreme exaggeration for emphasis or effect (e.g., This book weighs a ton.)
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Irony – a literary technique used to create meaning that seems to contradict the literal meaning or events (e.g., verbal, situational, dramatic)

Scheme – a figure of speech that concerns word order, syntax letters, and sounds, as opposed to the meaning of words

Possible examples of schemes:

  • Parallelism/parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Antithesis – the direct opposite; the rhetorical contrast using parallels within a sentence (e.g., give me liberty or give me death)
  • Inverted word order
  • Repetition of words
  • Reversed structures

By adding

TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

TxCCRS Note:
Writing – A4 – Recognize the importance of revision as the key to effective writing. Each draft should refine key ideas and organize them more logically and fluidly, use language more precisely and effectively, and draw the reader to the author’s purpose.

E3.13D Edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling.
Readiness Standard

Edit

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conventions/Grammar (refer to E3.17AB)
  • Capitalization and Punctuation (refer to E3.18A)
  • Spelling (refer to E3.19A)
  • Previously taught expectations in grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

Note:
This is the fourth step in the writing process. The focus is on grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

STAAR Note:
Questions related to editing may include the following written conventions in the correct answer and/or the distractors:

  • Pronoun use and consistency with antecedents (e.g. it vs. them, I vs.me)
  • Plural vs. possessive (apostrophe use)
  • Subject/verb agreement
  • Consistent verb tense
  • Double negatives
  • Superlative use
  • Part of speech (e.g., intentional vs. intentionally)
  • Comma usage (e.g., in a series, compound sentences, subordinate clauses/phrase, non-restrictive clause etc.)
  • Improperly punctuated sentences (e.g., comma splices, fragments)
  • Capitalization of proper nouns
  • Common spelling errors (e.g. then/than, its/it’s, there/their, a lot/a lot, ei vs. ie, loose/lose)
  • Conjunction use
  • Spelling rules associated with suffixes (e.g., -ing, -s, -es, -ed)
  • Commonly misused terms (e.g., good/well)
  • Article use (e.g., a vs. an)
  • Punctuation in quotations including ending punctuation, commas, and quotation marks


TxCCRS Note:

Writing – A5 – Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.

E3.13E Revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

Revise

FINAL DRAFT IN RESPONSE TO FEEDBACK FROM PEERS AND TEACHER

  • Refer to E3.13C for revision expectations

Publish

WRITTEN WORK FOR APPROPRIATE AUDIENCES

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use legible handwriting with appropriate spacing and/or use available technology to publish written work
  • Share published work with an appropriate audience

Note:
This is the last step in the writing process.

TxCCRS Note:
Writing – A4 – Recognize the importance of revision as the key to effective writing. Each draft should refine key ideas and organize them more logically and fluidly, use language more precisely and effectively, and draw the reader to the author’s purpose.

E3.14 Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E3.14A Write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, complex and non-stereotypical characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone.

Write

AN ENGAGING STORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • With a well-developed conflict and resolution
  • Interesting and believable characters
  • A range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the plot
  • Sensory details that define the mood or tone

Literary strategies and devices include, but are not limited to:

  • Dialogue – the lines spoken between characters in fiction or a play
  • Suspense – the sustained interest created by the buildup of events and delayed resolution of the plot’s conflict

Plot – the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three parts: rising action, climax, and falling action

Conflict – in literature, the opposition of persons or forces that brings about dramatic action central to the plot of a story. Conflict may be internal, as a psychological conflict within a character, or external (e.g., man versus man, man versus nature, or man versus society).

Resolution – the point in a literary work at which the story’s problem is worked out

Mood – the atmosphere or feeling created by the writer in a literary work or passage. Mood can be expressed through imagery, word choice, setting, voice, and theme. For example, the mood evoked in Edgar Allan Poe’s work is gloomy and dark.

Tone – the author’s particular attitude toward his/her subject, either stated or implied in the writing

E3.15 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E3.15A Write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:
Readiness Standard

Write

AN ANALYTICAL ESSAY OF SUFFICIENT LENGTH THAT INCLUDES:

Analytical essay – an essay that analyzes and interprets a work of literature by using specific examples from the text to build a logical argument beyond a summary or description of the work

E3.15A.i effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures
Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sentences are purposeful, varied, and well-controlled (refer to 3.17B)
  • The essay is thoughtful and engaging
E3.15A.ii

rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs


Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

E3.15A.iii a clear thesis statement or controlling idea
Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Controlling idea – the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.

Including, but not limited to:

  • A cogent thesis statement
  • Ideas are strongly related to the thesis and are focused on the specific aspect of the text the writer must address
E3.15A.iv a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas
Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence and logical progression

Possible examples of organization structures:

  • Chronological
  • Hierarchical
  • Pro/Con
  • Cause-and-effect
  • Comparison/Contrast
  • Attributes
  • Enumeration (reasons why)
E3.15A.v

relevant and substantial evidence and well-chosen details.


Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Explicit, insightful, clearly analytical interpretation of the text
E3.15C

Write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that:


Readiness Standard

Write

AN INTERPRETATION OF A LITERARY TEXT

Interpretative response – an analysis of a piece of literature in which the writer takes apart what was written by another author and explains it

E3.15C.i advances a clear thesis statement
Readiness Standard

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

 Including, but not limited to:

  • Present a thesis – thesis statement
  • Advance a thesis by focusing on the topic theme, or argument
E3.15C.ii addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay, including references to and commentary on quotations from the text
Readiness Standard

Note:
Refer to E3.15A-vi.

E3.15C.iii

analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices


Readiness Standard

Aesthetic effect – the use of language as an artistic medium to create imagery that evokes sensory perception. Texts in which language can be used aesthetically include fiction, drama, films, and poetry.

Stylistic device – a technique used by an author to express meaning, ideas, or feelings in a written work (e.g., metaphor, simile, alliteration, etc.). The use of these techniques is related to the tone of the piece and the style of the author.

E3.17 Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E3.17A

Use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases).


Supporting Standard

Use, Understand

THE FUNCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLAUSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Adjectival clause – a group of words with a subject and a verb that acts as an adjective by describing a noun or pronoun (e.g., The young man who is sitting near the door is my son.). Relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) usually introduce the adjectival clause but clauses may also begin with relative adverbs (when, where, why).
  • Noun clause (nominal clause) – a clause that functions as a noun within a sentence (e.g., I know that the students studied for the test. I wonder what is making Corrie so unhappy.)
  • Adverbial clause – a group of words with a subject and a verb that acts as an adverb by modifying a verb, adjective, or another adverb (e.g., I will go home when the party is over.)
E3.17B Use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).
Readiness Standard

Use

A VARIETY OF CORRECTLY STRUCTURED SENTENCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Compound sentence – a sentence composed of at least two independent clauses linked with a conjunction or semicolon (e.g., Sam talked, and Emma listened.)
  • Complex sentence – a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (e.g., I cleaned the room when the guests left.)
  • Compound-complex sentence – a compound sentence with at least one dependent clause (e.g., Dogs bark and birds sing when they are happy.)
E3.18 Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E3.18A Correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization.
Readiness Standard

Use

CONVENTIONS OF PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION CORRECTLY AND CONSISTENTLY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Proper and common nouns
  • Quotations
  • Other previously learned standards for capitalization
E3.19 Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E3.19A Spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.
Readiness Standard

Spell

CORRECTLY USING VARIOUS RESOURCES TO DETERMINE AND CHECK CORRECT SPELLINGS

Possible examples of resources:

  • Printed or electronic dictionary
  • Printed or electronic thesaurus
E3.25 Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Speaking
TxCCRS E/LAS.III.B - English/Language Arts/Speaking. Develop effective speaking styles for both group and one-on-one situations.
E3.25A Give a formal presentation that exhibits a logical structure, smooth transitions, accurate evidence, well-chosen details, and rhetorical devices, and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

Give

A FORMAL PRESENTATION

That exhibits

  • A LOGICAL STRUCTURE
  • SMOOTH TRANSITIONS
  • ACCURATE EVIDENCE
  • WELL-CHOSEN DETAILS
  • RHETORICAL DEVICES

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience (refer to E3.6A for examples)

That employs

  • EYE CONTACT
  • SPEAKING RATE (e.g. pauses for effect)
  • VOLUME
  • ENUNCIATION (e.g., speaking clearly and concisely)
  • PURPOSEFUL GESTURES
  • CONVENTIONS OF LANGUAGE

TO COMMUNICATE IDEAS EFFECTIVELY

Including, but not limited to:

  • In whole group, small group, and one-on-one situations as appropriate for the message
E3.26 Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Speaking
TxCCRS E/LAS.III.A - English/Language Arts/Speaking. Understand the elements of communication both in informal group discussions and formal presentations (e.g., accuracy, relevance, rhetorical features, and organization of information).
TxCCRS Listening
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Work habits
E3.26A Participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

Participate

PRODUCTIVELY IN TEAMS

Offering

IDEAS OR JUDGMENTS THAT ARE PURPOSEFUL IN MOVING THE TEAM TOWARD GOALS

Asking

RELEVANT AND INSIGHTFUL QUESTIONS

Tolerating

A RANGE OF POSITIONS AND AMBIGUITY IN DECISION–MAKING

Evaluating

THE WORK OF THE GROUP BASED ON AGREED-UPON CRITERIA

The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/30/2016
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