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Instructional Focus Document
English II
TITLE : Unit 04: Purposeful Persuasion SUGGESTED DURATION : 21 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address persuasive text (e.g., political debates) and media literary (e.g., web pages, online information, television, documentaries, commercials, blogs, newspapers) for the purpose of shaping perceptions and beliefs about reality. Students examine what the media and text present, how it does so, and what factors affect the way it is created. Through the study of print and non-print, students identify and analyze the effect of persuasive techniques in order to incorporate them into their own writing and to facilitate informed decision making.

In English I, students addressed persuasive texts (e.g., speeches) and media literary (e.g., web pages, online information, television, documentaries, commercials, blogs, newspapers) for the purpose of shaping perceptions and beliefs about reality. Through the study of print and non-print, students identified and analyzed the effect of persuasive techniques in order to incorporate them into their own writing and to facilitate informed decision making.

During this unit, political debates are examined for their use of rhetorical and logical fallacies such as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks. Evaluation of credibility is revisited as students explain shifts in perspectives and evaluate the accuracy of evidence given to support the viewpoint. Students analyze coverage of the same topic in various media forms to determine how perception or bias influences the audience. Students incorporate their persuasive knowledge and their analysis of media techniques to write a persuasive text to influence attitudes or actions of a specific audience using a clear position supported with relevant and creditable evidence and produce a multimedia presentation to convey a distinctive point of view. In In English III, students deconstruct both print and non-print messages to make informed decisions based on the credibility of sources. 


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Authors use techniques, form, and structure to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience.

Form – Essay

Technique – Appeals, Rhetorical Devices

Perspective – Argument

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Specific techniques may be used to support an argument.

Form – Debate

Technique – Appeals, Rhetorical Devices

Perspective – Argument

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Authors use techniques, form, and structure to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience

Media presentation may influence perspective.

Form – Media

Technique – Words, Sound

Elements – Tone

Structure – Graphics

Perception – Bias

Perspective

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Specific techniques may be used to support an argument.

Technique – Sound, Text, Visual

Readers infer meaning about a variety of texts using textual evidence to support ideas.

Interpretation – Connections, Understanding

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS:

  • Students may be unaware of the power of persuasive techniques in media and texts and may lack the understanding that media and communication in general is persuasive. They often passively believe messages rather than critiquing them for credibility and subtle influences.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Bias – a  speaker’s personal opinions or beliefs regarding a topic, issue or situation
  • Rhetorical fallacy – an argument that is not sound but may still be convincing. Rhetorical fallacies may be divided into three categories:
  1. Emotional fallacies appeal to the audience's emotions.
  2. Ethical fallacies unreasonably advance the writer's own authority or character.
  3. Logical fallacies depend upon faulty logic
  • Counter arguments – an argument against your thesis or some aspect of your reasoning
  • Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages
  • Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)
  • Argumentative essay – an essay in which the writer develops or debates a topic using logic and persuasion
  • Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments 2) the subject or theme of a speech or composition
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1A, E2.1B
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1C, E2.1D, E2.1E

Observation Data

 

Teacher-Student Conference

 

Checklist

 

Rubric

 

Reader’s Notebook

 

Writer’s Notebook

 

Vocabulary Notebook

 

Oral Quiz

 

Written Quiz

 

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Literary Nonfiction: E2.6A
Culture and History: E2.8A
Expository Text: E2.9A, E2.9B, E2.9C
Persuasive Text: E2.10A, E2.10B
Media Literacy: E2.12A, E2.12B, E2.12C, E2.12D
Gathering Sources: E2.21B, E2.21C
Synthesizing Information: E2.22B
Listening: E2.24C
Speaking: E2.25A
Comprehension Skills: E2.Fig19A, E2.Fig19B
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1E
Expository Text: E2.9D
Expository and Procedural Texts: E2.15C.i, E2.15C.ii, E2.15C.iii
Listening: E2.24A
Teamwork: E2.26A

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E2.13B, E2.13C
Expository and Procedural Texts: E2.15D
Persuasive Texts: E2.16A, E2.16B, E2.16C, E2.16D, E2.16E, E2.16F
Conventions: E2.17B
Listening: E2.24C
Speaking: E2.25A
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1E
Writing Process: E2.13A, E2.13D, E2.13E
Expository and Procedural Texts: E2.15A.i, E2.15A.ii, E2.15A.iii, E2.15A.iv, E2.15A.v, E2.15A.vi
Conventions: E2.17A.i, E2.17A.ii, E2.17A.iii, E2.17C
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E2.18A, E2.18B.i
Spelling: E2.19A
Listening: E2.24A
Teamwork: E2.26A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E2.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E2.1A Determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.
Supporting Standard

Determine

THE MEANING OF GRADE-LEVEL TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER LINGUISTIC ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words  

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E2.1B Analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

TEXTUAL CONTEXT

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To distinguish

BETWEEN DENOTATIVE AND CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS OF WORDS

Denotative Meaning – the dictionary definition of a word; the literal or cognitive meaning

Connotative Meaning – the emotions or set of associations attached to a word that is implied rather than literal (e.g., feeling blue)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Based on the textual context, use clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a selected word
  • Distinguish its meaning as either denotative or connotative, using a dictionary as necessary

STAAR Note:
Students have access to dictionaries during the STAAR exam. Dictionaries can assist students in determining word meaning. Refer to E2.1E for the standard addressing dictionary skills. However, students should consider the dictionary definitions in conjunction with contextual meaning.

E2.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
E2.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e. g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Focus on asking questions and making connections.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E2.Fig19B Make complex inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
Readiness Standard (Fiction, Expository)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama, Persuasive)

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

STAAR Note:
Paired passage questions associated with (TEKS number) assess similarities and differences in topic, overarching ideas, details, theme, mood, tone, organization, and purpose within or across texts of various genres (e.g., expository-expository, expository-fiction, poem-expository, persuasive-poem). Making connections may require inferential thinking.

E2.6 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw Conclusions

ABOUT THE VARIED STRUCTURAL PATTERNS AND FEATURES OF LITERARY NONFICTION

  • Make inferences related to the whole literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to a part of the literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to the structure of literary nonfiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to features (elements) of literary nonfiction (e.g., characterization, point of view, setting, events)
  • Make inferences related to specific details in literary nonfiction text including author's purpose

Respond by providing

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in literary nonfiction texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
TxCCRS Evaluate the use of both literal and figurative language to inform and shape the perceptions of readers.
TxCCRS Identify and analyze how an author's use of language appeals to the senses, creates imagery, and suggests mood.
E2.6A

Evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction.


Supporting Standard

Evaluate

  • THE ROLE OF SYNTAX AND DICTION
  • THE EFFECT OF VOICE, TONE, AND IMAGERY

ON A SPEECH OR OTHER FORMS OF LITERARY NONFICTION

Syntax – the arrangement and sequence of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases

Diction – choice of words in speaking or writing for clear and effective expression

Voice – articulation or expression in coherent form, either verbally or in a piece of writing

Tone – the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing

Imagery – the use of language to create mental images and sensory impressions. Imagery can be used for emotional effect and to intensify the impact on the reader. The following is an example of imagery from Romeo and Juliet: Her eyes in heaven/ Would through the airy region stream so bright/ That birds would sing and think it were not night (2.2.20–22).

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the purpose of syntax and diction and determine their effect on meaning
  • Identify the purpose of voice, tone, and imagery and determine their effect on meaning
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of syntax, diction, voice, tone, and imagery in the text

Possible examples of other forms of literary nonfiction:

  • Diaries, journals, memoirs, autobiographies, biographies

STAAR Note:
Questions may ask students to analyze specific details, quotations, figurative language, and tone.

E2.8 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE IN CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the purpose of an entire informational text
  • Determine the purpose of a section(s) of an informational text
  • Determine the purpose of a specific sentence from an informational text
  • Make inferences and draw conclusions within cultural and historical contexts

Possible verbs to describe purpose:

  • To inform, explain,  demonstrate, reveal, teach, communicate, establish, document
  • To illustrate, show, describe, indicate, clarify
  • To compare, contrast
  • To provide, give information/examples
  • To persuade, express an opinion, prove, encourage, argue, establish, convince, promote
  • To reinforce (an idea), emphasize, call attention to
  • To suggest, imply
  • To celebrate, recognize
  • To question, criticize, analyze

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.C - English/Language Arts/Reading. Describe, analyze, and evaluate information within and across literary and other texts from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
E2.8A Analyze the controlling idea and specific purpose of a passage and the textual elements that support and elaborate it, including both the most important details and the less important details.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

THE CONTROLLING IDEA AND SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF A PASSAGE AND THE TEXTUAL ELEMENTS THAT SUPPORT AND ELABORATE IT

Controlling idea – the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author's purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis:

  • Identify the controlling idea
  • Identify the specific purpose
  • Identify the most important details
  • Identify the less important details
  • Explain how the details support and elaborate the controlling idea
  • Explain how the details support and elaborate the author’s purpose
STAAR Note:
Refer to the specificity in the Knowledge and Skills Statement to gain additional information about how author’s purpose may be assessed on STAAR.
E2.9 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT EXPOSITORY TEXT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole text including the thesis/controlling idea and other key ideas
  • Make inferences related to a section of the text
  • Make inferences related to particular sentences, ideas, or details

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in expository texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E2.9A Summarize text and distinguish between a summary and a critique and identify non-essential information in a summary and unsubstantiated opinions in a critique.
Readiness Standard

Summarize

TEXT

Summary includes, but is not limited to:

  • Brief, coherent sentences that communicate the key information in logical order
  • Should only contain the most important, relevant details and exclude extraneous, less important details 

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main ideas. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Focus on summarizing text by writing summaries that capture main ideas and elements of a text.

Distinguish

BETWEEN A SUMMARY AND A CRITIQUE

Critique – holds and/or expresses opinions, takes a position

Identify

NON-ESSENTIAL INFORMATION IN A SUMMARY AND UNSUBSTANTIATED OPINIONS IN A CRITIQUE

Non-essential information – less important, extraneous information 

Unsubstantiated – has not been verified, proven, or confirmed

E2.9B Distinguish among different kinds of evidence (e.g., logical, empirical, anecdotal) used to support conclusions and arguments in texts.
Supporting Standard

Distinguish

AMONG DIFFERENT KINDS OF EVIDENCE USED TO SUPPORT CONCLUSIONS AND ARGUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Logical – any system of rational, logical thought
  • Empirical – based on observation or experience, as opposed to theory
  • Anecdotal – based on personal observation (as opposed to scientific evidence)

STAAR Note:
Questions associated with E2.9B may ask students to identify textual evidence that substantiates ideas in the text.

E2.9C Make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns.
Readiness Standard

Make, Defend

SUBTLE INFERENCES AND COMPLEX CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE IDEAS IN TEXT AND THEIR ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS

Subtle inference – readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. A subtle inference is one in which the bits of information are not as easily connected.

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Organizational pattern – the pattern an author constructs as he or she organizes his or her ideas and provides supporting details. Examples of commonly used patterns are cause and effect, problem and solution, description, and order of importance.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Defend with textual evidence, credible sources, and/or background knowledge and experience

Note:

  • Organizational patterns can be found in sections of text (single or multiple paragraphs) or throughout an entire text.
  • Refer to E1.Fig19B for related comprehension skills.

STAAR Note:
Some questions may ask students to consider the connection between organizational patterns and author’s purpose.

E2.10 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions
ABOUT PERSUASIVE TEXT
Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze for structure or organization of entire text or a section of text
  • Analyze details that support the author's claim
  • Draw conclusions about the author's message/viewpoint by analyzing for rhetorical techniques and devices used by the author (e.g., generalizations, examples, figurative language, understatement, hyperbole, rhetorical questions, shifts in point of view, etc.)

Provide
EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR ANALYSIS
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in persuasive texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E2.10A Explain shifts in perspective in arguments about the same topic and evaluate the accuracy of the evidence used to support the different viewpoints within those arguments.
Supporting Standard

Explain

SHIFTS IN PERSPECTIVE IN ARGUMENTS ABOUT THE SAME TOPIC

Evaluate

THE ACCURACY OF THE EVIDENCE USED TO SUPPORT THE DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS WITHIN THOSE ARGUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify shifts in perspectives in two or more texts with similar topics
  • Determine the relevance, quality, and credibility of evidence provided in each text
  • Explain the accuracy of the evidence and the differing viewpoints in each text
E2.10B Analyze contemporary political debates for such rhetorical and logical fallacies as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks.

Analyze

CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL DEBATES FOR RHETORICAL AND LOGICAL FALLACIES

Rhetorical fallacy – an argument that is not sound but may still be convincing. Rhetorical fallacies may be divided into three categories:

  1. Emotional fallacies appeal to the audience's emotions.
  2. Ethical fallacies unreasonably advance the writer's own authority or character.
  3. Logical fallacies depend upon faulty logic

Logical fallacy – an incorrect or problematic argument that is not based on sound reasoning (e.g., Because everything is bigger in Texas, you can expect a bigger salary in Texas.)

Including, but not limited to: Steps in analysis

  • Identify rhetorical and logical fallacies
  • Explain the purpose and use of rhetorical and logical fallacies

Rhetorical and logical fallacies include, but are not limited to:

  • Appeals to commonly held opinion
  • False dilemmas
  • Appeals to pity
  • Personal attacks

Previously introduced rhetorical devices and logical fallacies:

  • Bandwagon
  • Incorrect factual claims
  • Red herring
  • False authority
  • Ad hominem
  • Exaggeration
  • Stereotyping
  • Categorical claims
  • Testimonials
  • Logical appeals
  • Emotional appeals
  • Appeal to authority
  • Scare tactics
  • False need
  • Loaded terms
  • Caricatures
  • Leading questions
  • False assumptions
  • Incorrect premises
E2.12 Reading/Media Literacy.

Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

Use

COMPREHENSION SKILLS

Analyze

HOW WORDS, IMAGES, GRAPHICS, AND SOUNDS WORK TOGETHER IN VARIOUS FORMS TO IMPACT MEANING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret words, images, and sounds in media and consider their effect on meaning
  • Determine the purpose of embedded media
  • Determine how details within embedded media supports information in the text

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Listening
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Reasoning
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Technology
E2.12A Evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

HOW MESSAGES PRESENTED IN MEDIA REFLECT SOCIAL AND CULTURAL VIEWS IN WAYS DIFFERENT FROM TRADITIONAL TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify the message(s) presented in media and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Identify the message(s) presented in a traditional text and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Examine and then explain the differences in how the identified messages and social and cultural views are presented in media versus traditional texts

Possible forms of media include:

  • Advertisement – print and electronic (e.g., flyers, brochures, posters, signs)
  • Newspaper
  • Magazine
  • Radio program (songs, lyrical music)
  • Web page – online information
  • Televised news
  • Documentary
  • Photograph (with or without caption)
E2.12B Analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music).

Analyze

HOW MESSAGES IN MEDIA ARE CONVEYED THROUGH VISUAL AND SOUND TECHNIQUES

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify visual and sound techniques
  • Identify the message
  • Explain and analyze how visual and sound techniques convey the message

Visual techniques include, but are not limited to:

  • Editing
  • Reaction shots
  • Sequencing
  • Camera angles (e.g., close-ups, multiple exposures, digital composing)
  • Lighting
  • Special effects – the illusion used to simulate the imagined events
  • Movement
  • Graphics
  • Shape
  • Color
  • Picture

Sound technique includes, but is not limited to:

  • Music (e.g., background music)
  • Sound effects – simulate imagined events
E2.12C Examine how individual perception or bias in coverage of the same event influences the audience.

Examine

HOW INDIVIDUAL PERCEPTION OR BIAS IN COVERAGE OF THE SAME EVENT INFLUENCES THE AUDIENCE

Bias – a speaker’s personal opinions or beliefs regarding a topic, issue, or situation

E2.12D Evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CHANGES IN FORMALITY AND TONE WITHIN THE SAME MEDIUM FOR SPECIFIC AUDIENCES AND PURPOSES

Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages

Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet or source (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • View media presentations on the same subject, but for different audiences (e.g., the same news story relayed on multiple television networks)
  • Identify formality and tone in each presentation
  • Examine and then explain how the formality and tone change for specific audiences and purposes
E2.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E2.13B Structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning.
Readiness Standard

Structure

IDEAS IN A SUSTAINED AND PERSUASIVE WAY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, and/or lists as applicable
  • Select a form or structure appropriate to the genre, purpose and audience

Develop

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In timed and open-ended situations
  • Develop a draft using a selected organizational pattern appropriate to the genre, audience and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the thesis or controlling idea of the piece
  • Develop a coherent draft that is focused and well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Include rhetorical devices as appropriate to convey meaning

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process. This SE combines prewriting (making a plan) and writing a draft (putting thoughts onto paper). The focus is on content, not mechanics.

E2.13C Revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed.
Readiness Standard

After rethinking

HOW WELL QUESTIONS OF PURPOSE, AUDIENCE, AND GENRE HAVE BEEN ADDRESSED

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Genre – the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To improve style – the way something is written, in contrast to its content
  • To improve word choice – the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader
  • To improve the use of figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices
  • To improve sentence variety – purposeful use of simple, compound, complex and compound complex sentences (refer to E2.17C)
  • To improve subtlety of meaning – fine distinctions of meanin

Revisions may include, but are not limited to:

  • Revise entire sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Run-on sentences and comma splices
    • Fragments
    • Order of words and phrases (e.g. misplaced prepositional phrases)
    • Repetition
    • Transition sentence
  • Revise/change/replace single words and phrases including, but not limited to:
    • General vs. specific
    • Formal vs. informal 
    • Synonyms vs. antonyms
    • Transitional words and phrases
    • Pronoun specificity (antecedent)
    • Appropriate vs. inappropriate
    • Create parallel structure
  • Add/insert sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Relevant details in appropriate places
  • Add/insert single words and/or phrases including, but not limited to:
    • Transitions
  • Add/insert sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Relevant details in appropriate places
  • Delete unnecessary sentences/details
  • Combine sentences into a single sentence while maintaining meaning and clarity

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

E2.15 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E2.15D Produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

Produce

A MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION WITH

  • GRAPHICS
  • IMAGES
  • SOUND

THAT CONVEYS A DISTINCTIVE POINT OF VIEW AND APPEALS TO A SPECIFIC AUDIENCE

Possible examples of multimedia presentations:

  • Documentary
  • Class newspaper
  • Docudrama
  • Infomercial
  • Visual or textual parodies
  • Theatrical production
E2.16 Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:
Readiness Standard

Write

AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TO THE APPROPRIATE AUDIENCE

Argumentative essay – an essay in which the writer develops or debates a topic using logic and persuasion

Possible examples of argumentative essays:

  • Evaluative essays
  • Proposals

Including, but not limited to:

E2.16A A clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence.
Supporting Standard

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Position – an opinion about a particular subject

Including, but not limited to:

  • Clear and specific thesis/position
  • All ideas strongly relate to the thesis/position and are focused on the issue
E2.16B Consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context).

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognize the complexities of the issue
  • Consider opposing or alternate points of view
  • Premise
  • Supporting information
  • Conclusion
  • Use of the author’s own words in context

Premise – statement(s) written in a logical way to support a conclusion

E2.16C Counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections.
Supporting Standard

Counter argument – when the author turns against his/her argument to challenge it and then turns back to re-affirm it. It is an objection to the objection, used to strengthen the author’s position.

E2.16D An organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context.
Supporting Standard

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organization of a paper – the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.
E2.16E An analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas.
Supporting Standard

Including, but not limited to:

  • Provide relevant, quality, and credible evidence in the analysis of data, facts, and ideas
E2.16F A range of appropriate appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustrations).
Supporting Standard

Including, but not limited to:

  • Descriptions
  • Anecdotes
  • Case studies
  • Analogies
  • Illustrations
  • Valid appeals to emotion
  • Use of valid authority

Anecdote – a short narrative that relates an interesting or amusing incident, usually in order to make or support a larger point

E2.17 Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E2.17B Identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities.

Subjunctive mood – a verb mood expressing a wish or command, or a hypothetical or anticipated condition (e.g., If I were finished eating, I would go to the party.)

E2.21 Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Research
TxCCRS Gather relevant sources.
TxCCRS Use source material ethically.
E2.21B Organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs).

Organize

INFORMATION GATHERED FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES

To create

A VARIETY OF GRAPHICS AND FORMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Notes
  • Learning logs

Other possible examples:

  • Outlines
  • Concept maps
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • Timelines
E2.21C Paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

Paraphrase, Summarize, Quote, Accurately Cite

ALL RESEARCHED INFORMATION ACCORDING TO A STANDARD FORMAT

Possible examples of standard formats:

  • Bibliography
  • MLA style format
  • CMS format
  • APA style format
  • Use of an online citation generator to develop a bibliography or works cited
E2.22 Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Research
TxCCRS Evaluate the validity and reliability of sources.
TxCCRS Synthesize and organize information effectively.
E2.22B Evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity.

Evaluate

THE RELEVANCE OF INFORMATION TO THE TOPIC

Determine

THE RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, AND ACCURACY OF SOURCES (INCLUDING  INTERNET SOURCES) BY EXAMINING THEIR AUTHORITY AND OBJECTIVITY

Valid source – a correct and truthful source. Some questions useful for evaluating validity of a source might be: Does the author present facts with supporting evidence? Does the information in this source match information in other sources?

Reliable source – credible or believable source. Some questions to evaluate credibility might be: Is the author a respected authority on the subject? Does the author support opinions with strong argumentation and reasoning? How current is the information?

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evaluate accuracy by examining the list of sources for credibility and authority, and objectivity to determine their validity

Questions for the examination of authority:                                        

  • Is the author’s name clearly visible?
  • Is there a link to the author's e-mail address?
  • What are the author's credentials to write about the chosen topic?
  • Does the author belong to an organization?
  • If the page is authored by an organization, what additional information is made available about them?

URL domain extensions:

  • Signal type of organization responsible for the source (e.g., edu- education, gov-government, org-organization, com-commercial, net-network infrastructures)
  • Look at the web address to find the source of information and the server on which it resides                                                                                  
  • Is the site designed to sell, inform, or persuade visitors?
  • Does the site promote the opinions of a specific group?
  • Is there advertising on the page?                                                                         
  • Can the advertising be easily distinguished from the information content?

Note:
Accuracy is determined by the authority and objectivity of the sources.

E2.24 Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Listening
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.B - English/Language Arts/Listening. Listen effectively in informal and formal situations.
E2.24C Evaluate how the style and structure of a speech support or undermine its purpose or meaning.

Evaluate

HOW THE STYLE AND STRUCTURE OF A SPEECH SUPPORT OR UNDERMINE ITS PURPOSE OR MEANING

Style – the way something is written, in contrast to its content. (e.g., Hemingway’s writing style is terse, blunt, and conversational.) Style is more about how you say it than what you said.

Structure – the organization and order (e.g., elements of speeches)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use teacher-developed and student-developed criteria

Possible examples of elements of speeches:

  • Introduction
  • First and second transitions
  • Body
  • Conclusion
E2.25 Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Speaking
TxCCRS E/LAS.III.B - English/Language Arts/Speaking. Develop effective speaking styles for both group and one-on-one situations.
E2.25A Advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

Advance

A COHERENT ARGUMENT

That incorporates

A CLEAR THESIS AND A LOGICAL PROGRESSION OF VALID EVIDENCE FROM RELIABLE SOURCES

Thesis – 1) a statement or premise supported by arguments 2) the subject or theme of a speech or composition

That employs

  • EYE CONTACT
  • SPEAKING RATE (e.g. pauses for effect)
  • VOLUME
  • ENUNCIATION (e.g., speaking clearly and concisely)
  • PURPOSEFUL GESTURES
  • CONVENTIONS OF LANGUAGE

TO COMMUNICATE IDEAS EFFECTIVELY

Including, but not limited to:

  • In whole group, small group, and one-on-one situations as appropriate for the message
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 02/10/2017
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