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Instructional Focus Document
English IV
TITLE : Unit 06: Evaluating Merits of Argument SUGGESTED DURATION : 20 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address word study, reading, and writing of persuasive texts and media analysis. Through the study of print and non-print media, students will identify and analyze the effect of persuasive techniques in order to incorporate them into their own writing.

In English III, students analyzed persuasive techniques in texts and in media. Students examined historical and contemporary political debates for their use of techniques such as logical fallacies, circular logic, and hasty generalizations and their effectiveness to influence. Media messages were compared to traditional texts in their presentations that reflect social and cultural views. Students determined credibility and provided evidence by analyzing the relevance and quality of information given and compare the coverage of the same events in media in order to evaluate objectivity. Students wrote persuasive texts using a clear position and supporting evidence to influence attitudes or actions of a specific audience. During this unit, the examination of informational texts continues through the evaluation of merits in an argument. Students draw conclusions about credibility by examining assumptions conveyed in text. Media messages are evaluated for the presentation of ideas to understand the notions of bias, audience, and purpose. Students incorporate their persuasive knowledge to write an evaluative essay to influence attitudes or actions of a specific audience using a clear position with supporting and relevant evidence.


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Authors use techniques, form, and structure to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience.

Form – Argumentative Essay

Techniques – Persuasive

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Credibility of sources affects the reliability of information.

Interpretation – Credibility, Reliability

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Media presentation may influence perspective.

Form – Media

Perspective

Purpose/Audience

Techniques – Media Techniques

Interpretation – Connections, Understanding

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Effective readers analyze how authors use techniques, form, and structure to influence the attitudes or actions of others and make decisions based on their findings.

Readers infer meaning about a variety of texts using textual evidence to support ideas.

Interpretations – Connections, Understanding

Perception – Ideas

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS:

  • Bias identifies the collective influences of the entire context of a message. As students receive messages from various print and non-print sources, they might have difficulty determining whether the messages being received are from an objective point of view because of the appeals and arguments used to support the messages.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Implicit assumption – an assumption that is not directly expressed but nonetheless understood either consciously or unconsciously
  • Stated assumption – when an author clearly states the premise in a persuasive work
  • Multi-layered media – the use of visuals (e.g., graphics), sound, text/print, and more
  • Bias – a speaker’s personal opinions or beliefs regarding a topic, issue, or situation
  • Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages
  • Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)
  • Argumentative essay – an essay in which the writer develops or debates a topic using logic and persuasion
  • Tone – the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing
  • Style – the way something is written, in contrast to its content. (e.g., Hemingway’s writing style is terse, blunt, and conversational.)
  • Level of formality – formal, semiformal, or informal writing style determined by the writer’s purpose and the intended audience
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1A
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1B, E4.1C, E4.1D, E4.1E

Observation Data

Teacher – Student Conference

Checklist

Rubric

Reader’s Notebook

Writer’s Notebook

Vocabulary Notebook

Oral Quiz

Written Quiz

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Comprehension of Literary Text:
Persuasive Text: E4.10A, E4.10B
Media Literacy: E4.12A, E4.12B, E4.12C, E4.12D
Gathering Sources: E4.21A, E4.21B
Synthesizing Information: E4.22B
Listening: E4.24B
Speaking: E4.25A
Comprehension Skills: E4.Fig19A, E4.Fig19B
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1B, E4.1E
Culture and History: E4.8A
Expository Text: E4.9A, E4.9B, E4.9C, E4.15C.i, E4.15C.ii, E4.15C.iii
Listening: E4.24A
Teamwork: E4.26A

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E4.13C
Persuasive Texts: E4.16A, E4.16B, E4.16C, E4.16D, E4.16E, E4.16F, E4.16G
Organizing and Presenting Ideas: E4.23A, E4.23B, E4.23C
Listening: E4.24B
Speaking: E4.25A
Ongoing TEKS
Writing Process: E4.13A, E4.13B, E4.13D, E4.13E, E4.15D
Conventions: E4.17A, E4.17B
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E4.18A
Spelling: E4.19A
Listening: E4.24A
Teamwork: E4.26A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E4.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E4.1A Determine the meaning of technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.

Determine

THE MEANING OF TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words  

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E4.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
E4.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e. g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E4.Fig19B Make complex inferences (e.g., inductive and deductive) about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

STAAR Note:
Paired passage questions associated with (TEKS number) assess similarities and differences in ideas, details, theme, mood, tone, organization, and purpose within or across texts of various genres (e.g., expository-expository, expository-fiction, poem-expository, persuasive-poem). Making connections may require inferential thinking.

E4.10 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions
ABOUT PERSUASIVE TEXT
Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze for structure or organization of entire text or a section of text
  • Analyze details that support the author's claim
  • Draw conclusions about the author's message/viewpoint by analyzing for rhetorical techniques and devices used by the author (e.g., generalizations, examples, figurative language, understatement, hyperbole, rhetorical questions, shifts in point of view, etc.)

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR ANALYSIS
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in persuasive texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E4.10A Evaluate the merits of an argument, action, or policy by analyzing the relationships (e.g., implication, necessity, sufficiency) among evidence, inferences, assumptions, and claims in text.

Evaluate

THE MERITS OF AN ARGUMENT, ACTION, OR POLICY

By analyzing

THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG EVIDENCE, INFERENCES, ASSUMPTIONS, AND CLAIMS IN TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Determine the author’s purpose in the text
  • Identify the evidence, inferences, assumptions, and claims in the text
  • Analyze the relationships (e.g., implication, necessity, sufficiency) between the evidence, inferences, assumptions, and claims
  • Evaluate the merits and determine the effectiveness of the argument, action, or policy
E4.10B Draw conclusions about the credibility of persuasive text by examining its implicit and stated assumptions about an issue as conveyed by the specific use of language.

Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE CREDIBILITY OF PERSUASIVE TEXT

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

By examining

ITS IMPLICIT AND STATED ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT AN ISSUE AS CONVEYED BY THE SPECIFIC USE OF LANGUAGE

Implicit assumption – an assumption that is not directly expressed but nonetheless understood either consciously or unconsciously

Stated assumption – when an author clearly states the premise in a persuasive work

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify the implicit and stated assumptions about an issue by examining the specific language
  • Evaluate the credibility of the evidence by studying the use of language and device
  • Draw a conclusion about the credibility
E4.12 Reading/Media Literacy.

Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

Use

COMPREHENSION SKILLS

Analyze

HOW WORDS, IMAGES, GRAPHICS, AND SOUNDS WORK TOGETHER IN VARIOUS FORMS TO IMPACT MEANING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret words, images, and sounds in media and consider their effect on meaning
  • Determine the purpose of embedded media
  • Determine how details within embedded media supports information in the text

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS CDS.I.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Reasoning
TxCCRS CDS.II.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Technology
E4.12A Evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts.

Evaluate

HOW MESSAGES PRESENTED IN MEDIA REFLECT SOCIAL AND CULTURAL VIEWS IN WAYS DIFFERENT FROM TRADITIONAL TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify the message(s) presented in media and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Identify the message(s) presented in a traditional text and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Examine and then explain the differences in how the identified messages and social and cultural views are presented in media versus traditional texts

Possible forms of media include:

  • Advertisement – print and electronic (e.g., flyers, brochures, posters, signs)
  • Newspaper
  • Magazine
  • Radio program (songs, lyrical music)
  • Web page – online information
  • Televised news
  • Documentary
  • Photograph (with or without caption)
E4.12B Evaluate the interactions of different techniques (e.g., layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, sound in electronic journalism) used in multi-layered media.

Evaluate

THE INTERACTIONS OF DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES USED IN MULTI-LAYERED MEDIA

Multi-layered media – the use of visuals (e.g., graphics), sound, text/print, and more

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify visual, sound, and text and techniques used
  • Identify how visual, sound, and text are organized (e.g., layout) and how they interact
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the interaction among all three on the message

Techniques include, but are not limited to:

  • Typeface in print media
  • Images
  • Text/print
E4.12C Evaluate how one issue or event is represented across various media to understand the notions of bias, audience, and purpose.

Evaluate

HOW ONE ISSUE OR EVENT IS REPRESENTED ACROSS VARIOUS MEDIA TO UNDERSTAND THE NOTIONS OF BIAS, AUDIENCE, AND PURPOSE

Bias – a speaker’s personal opinions or beliefs regarding a topic, issue, or situation

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • View one issue/event presented in more than one media
  • Explain the bias, the purpose of the bias, and the effect on the audience, positive or negative
E4.12D Evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes.

Evaluate

CHANGES IN FORMALITY AND TONE ACROSS VARIOUS MEDIA FOR DIFFERENT AUDIENCES AND PURPOSES

Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages

Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet or source (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • View media presentations on the same subject but in different forms of media (e.g., the same news story relayed on a television network, a local newspaper and a national news magazine)
  • Identify formality and tone in each presentation
  • Examine and then explain how the formality and tone change for different audiences and purposes
E4.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.13C Revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases.

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To clarify meaning
  • To achieve specific rhetorical purposes
  • To achieve consistency of tone
  • To achieve logical organization

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

By rearranging

THE WORDS, SENTENCES, AND PARAGRAPHS TO EMPLOY TROPES, SCHEMES

Trope – nonliteral or figurative language

Possible examples of tropes:

  • Metaphor – a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.)
  • Simile – a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)
  • Analogy – figurative language that makes comparisons in unexpected ways. A literary analogy is often an extended comparison. The purpose is to show similarities in process or in structure. For example, an author might compare a visit to a flea market to an all-you-can-eat buffet, carrying the comparison through a paragraph, section of the work, or an entire piece.
  • Hyperbole – an intentional and extreme exaggeration for emphasis or effect (e.g., This book weighs a ton.)
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Irony – a literary technique used to create meaning that seems to contradict the literal meaning or events (e.g., verbal, situational, dramatic)

Scheme – a figure of speech that concerns word order, syntax letters, and sounds, as opposed to the meaning of words

Possible examples of schemes:

  • Parallelism/parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Antithesis – the direct opposite; the rhetorical contrast using parallels within a sentence (e.g., Give me liberty or give me deat.)
  • Inverted word order
  • Repetition of words
  • Reversed structures

By adding

TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

E4.16 Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

Write

AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TO THE APPROPRIATE AUDIENCE

Argumentative essay – an essay in which the writer develops or debates a topic using logic and persuasion

Possible examples of argumentative essays:

  • Evaluative essays
  • Proposals

Including, but not limited to:

TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.16A A clear thesis or position based on logical reasons with various forms of support (e.g., hard evidence, reason, common sense, cultural assumptions).

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Position – an opinion about a particular subject

Including, but not limited to:

  • Clear and specific thesis/position
  • All ideas strongly relate to the thesis/position and are focused on the issue
  • Hard evidence
  • Reason
  • Common sense
  • Cultural assumptions
E4.16B Accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context).

Divergent views – different views

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognize the complexities of the issue
  • Consider opposing or alternate points of view
  • Use of the author’s own words in context
E4.16C An organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organization of a paper – the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.
E4.16D Information on the complete range of relevant perspectives.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognize the complexities of the issue
  • Consider opposing or alternate points of view
E4.16E Demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used.

Primary source – a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred. Researchers may collect primary source documents through letters, speeches, diaries, surveys, field work, or personal interviews.

Secondary source – a source that is a step removed from the original accounts of an event or experience

Including, but not limited to:

  • Consider the integrity and trustworthiness of the author
E4.16F Language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs).

Including, but not limited to:

  • Appeals to logic
  • Appeals to emotion
  • Appeals to ethical beliefs
E4.16G An awareness and anticipation of audience response that is reflected in different levels of formality, style, and tone.

Tone – the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing

Style – the way something is written, in contrast to its content. (e.g., Hemingway’s writing style is terse, blunt, and conversational.)

Level of formality – formal, semiformal, or informal writing style determined by the writer’s purpose and the intended audience

E4.21 Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS

E/LAS.V.B1 - English/Language Arts/Research. Gather relevant sources.

TxCCRS

E/LAS.V.B4 - English/Language Arts/Research. Use source material ethically.

E4.21A Follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source.

Follow

THE RESEARCH PLAN

To gather

EVIDENCE FROM EXPERTS ON THE TOPIC AND TEXTS WRITTEN FOR INFORMED AUDIENCES IN THE FIELD

Including,  but not limited to:

  • Use source materials ethically
  • Use authoritative sources

Distinguish

BETWEEN RELIABLE AND UNRELIABLE SOURCES AND AVOIDING OVER- RELIANCE ON ONE SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evaluate for content
  • Evaluate for purpose
  • Evaluate the author’s credibility
  • Evaluate the data
  • Evaluate Internet sources – check the URL for the following endings: com, edu, org   
  • Evaluate Internet sources for purpose
E4.21B Systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences.

Systematically organize

RELEVANT AND ACCURATE INFORMATION

To support

CENTRAL IDEAS, CONCEPTS, AND THEMES

Outline

IDEAS INTO CONCEPTUAL MAPS, TIMELINES, AND SEPARATE FACTUAL DATA FROM COMPLEX INFERENCES

E4.22 Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS

E/LAS.V.B2 - English/Language Arts/Research. Evaluate the validity and reliability of sources.

TxCCRS

E/LAS.V.B3 - English/Language Arts/Research. Synthesize and organize information effectively.

E4.22B Differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and how that evidence helps create a cogent argument.

Differentiate

BETWEEN THEORIES AND THE EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS THEM

Theory – any systematic and coherent collection of ideas that relate to a specific subject          

Evidence – everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth about an assertion

Determine

WHETHER THE EVIDENCE FOUND IS WEAK OR STRONG AND HOW THAT EVIDENCE HELPS CREATE A COGENT ARGUMENT

E4.23 Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:

Synthesize

THE RESEARCH INTO A WRITTEN OR AN ORAL PRESENTATION THAT:

TxCCRS E/LAS.V.C - English/Language Arts/Research. Produce and design a document.
E4.23A Provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information.

Provides

AN ANALYSIS

That supports, develops

PERSONAL OPINIONS, AS OPPOSED TO SIMPLY RESTATING EXISTING INFORMATION

E4.23B Uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis.

Uses

A VARIETY OF FORMATS AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES

Possible examples of rhetorical strategies:

  • Logos (logical appeal based on reason; often depends on the use of inductive or deductive reasoning)
  • Pathos (emotional appeal based on an audience's needs, values, and emotional sensibilities)
  • Ethos (ethical appeal based on the character, credibility, or reliability of the writer)

To argue

FOR THE THESIS

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Written presentation
  • Oral presentation
E4.23C Develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments.

Develops

AN ARGUMENT

That incorporates

THE COMPLEXITIES OF AND DISCREPENCIES IN INFORMATION FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES AND PERSPECTIVES WHILE ANTICIPATING AND REFUTING COUNTER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Propose a thesis and offer reasoning, using evidence from multiple sources and perspectives that suggest why the thesis is true
  • To counter-argue, consider a possible argument against the thesis or some aspect of the reasoning and use supporting evidence to negate that argument
E4.24 Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.B - English/Language Arts/Listening. Listen effectively in informal and formal situations.
E4.24B Assess the persuasiveness of a presentation based on content, diction, rhetorical strategies, and delivery.

Assess

THE PERSUASIVENESS OF A PRESENTATION BASED ON CONTENT, DICTION, RHETORICAL STRATEGIES, AND DELIVERY

Diction – 1) Choice of words in speaking or writing for clear and effective expression. 2) Clarity of speech; enunciation.

Syntax – the arrangement and sequence of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases

Including, but not limited to:

  • Diction
  • Content
  • Rhetorical strategies
  • Delivery (eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, gestures)
  • Style
  • Conventions (syntax, grammar usages, pronunciations)

Style – the way something is written, in contrast to its content. (e.g., Hemingway’s writing style is terse, blunt, and conversational.) Style is more about how you say it than what you said. (See English 1.10B for examples)

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience – a technique used to evoke an emotional response (refer to E1.10B for examples)

E4.25 Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.III.B - English/Language Arts/Speaking. Develop effective speaking styles for both group and one-on-one situations.
E4.25A Formulate sound arguments by using elements of classical speeches (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, and conclusion), the art of persuasion, rhetorical devices, eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

Formulate

SOUND ARGUMENTS

By using

  • ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL SPEECHES (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, and conclusion)
  • THE ART OF PERSUASION
  • RHETORICAL DEVICES
  • EYE CONTACT
  • SPEAKING RATE (e.g., pauses for effect)
  • VOLUME
  • ENUNCIATION (e.g., speaking clearly and concisely)
  • PURPOSEFUL GESTURES
  • CONVENTIONS OF LANGUAGE

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience (refer to E4.6A for examples)

TO COMMUNICATE IDEAS EFFECTIVELY

Including, but not limited to:

  • In whole group, small group, and one-on-one situations as appropriate for the message
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 04/04/2016
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