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Instructional Focus Document
English IV
TITLE : Unit 05: Inquiry and Synthesis Through Research SUGGESTED DURATION : 20 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address the research process in order to provide students with the necessary skills to develop an annotated bibliography and a documented research report. By using critical thinking skills, students synthesize information and create a cogent argument supported by evidence. The discreet skills acquired in the research process will assist in future research inquiry in both college and career pathways.

In English III, students followed a plan to research a current world issue of personal interest. During this unit, students continue to build on the research skills acquired previously. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources in order to formulate the major research question that addresses the research topic. After analyzing the credibility of sources, students will develop a documented research report using a style manual and present their ideas through a multimedia presentation.


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Authors build a foundation for research by asking relevant questions and developing a plan.

Structure – Question, Outline, Thesis

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Authors gather and critique information to determine credibility and relevance.

Interpretation – Credibility, Reliability

Evidence supports a thesis through documentation of relevant facts.

Interpretation – Evidence, Facts

Perspective – Thesis

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Authors use a repertoire of strategies that enable them to vary form, style, and structure, in order to write for different purposes, audiences and contexts.

Form – Multimedia

Techniques – Media Techniques

Elements – Point of View

Purpose/Audience

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Speaking and listening are a fundamental process used to express, explore, and learn about ideas.

Conventions – Oral Conventions

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS:

  • Students may have difficulty compiling an annotated bibliography. Students need to keep in mind that an annotated bibliography is a bibliography in which each entry is accompanied by an annotation - a statement, ranging in length from a sentence or two to an entire paragraph, which may describe, explain, and evaluate each item. Therefore, when composing an annotated bibliography, the annotation along with the citation is needed.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Rhetorical device a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience
  • Major research question – one clear, significant, researchable question that can be discussed and answered by collecting information from various sources
  • Primary source a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred and created by someone who was present at the event. Examples of primary source documents include letters, speeches, diaries, surveys, fieldwork, and personal interviews.
  • Secondary source a source that is a step removed from the original accounts of an event or experience
  • Theory – any systematic and coherent collection of ideas that relate to a specific subject          
  • Evidence – everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth about an assertion
  • Annotated bibliography – a bibliography wherein each source entry is accompanied by an annotation which ranges in length from a sentence or two to an entire paragraph or more that describes key ideas of the source, explains the source’s connections to other sources, analyzes where the material may fit into the research paper, and/or evaluates the quality of the source in regards to accuracy, relevance, and credibility
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1A
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1B, E4.1C, E4.1D, E4.1E

Observation Data

Teacher-Student Conference

Checklist

Rubric

Reader’s Notebook

Writer’s Notebook

Vocabulary Notebook

Oral Quiz

Written Quiz

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Research Plan: E4.20A, E4.20B
Gathering Sources: E4.21A, E4.21B, E4.21C
Synthesizing Information: E4.22A, E4.22B, E4.22C
Speaking: E4.25A
Comprehension Skills: E4.Fig19A, E4.Fig19B
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1B, E4.1E
Expository Text: E4.9A, E4.9B, E4.9C, E4.9D
Media Literacy: E4.12A
Listening: E4.24A
Teamwork: E4.26A

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E4.13C
Expository and Procedural Texts: E4.15D
Organizing and Presenting Ideas: E4.23A, E4.23B, E4.23C, E4.23D, E4.23E
Ongoing TEKS
Writing Process: E4.13A, E4.13B, E4.13D, E4.13E
Conventions: E4.17A, E4.17B
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E4.18A
Spelling: E4.19A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E4.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E4.1A Determine the meaning of technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.

Determine

THE MEANING OF TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words  

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E4.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
E4.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e. g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E4.Fig19B Make complex inferences (e.g., inductive and deductive) about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

STAAR Note:
Paired passage questions associated with (TEKS number) assess similarities and differences in ideas, details, theme, mood, tone, organization, and purpose within or across texts of various genres (e.g., expository-expository, expository-fiction, poem-expository, persuasive-poem). Making connections may require inferential thinking.

E4.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.13C Revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases.

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To clarify meaning
  • To achieve specific rhetorical purposes
  • To achieve consistency of tone
  • To achieve logical organization

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

By rearranging

THE WORDS, SENTENCES, AND PARAGRAPHS TO EMPLOY TROPES, SCHEMES

Trope – nonliteral or figurative language

Possible examples of tropes:

  • Metaphor – a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.)
  • Simile – a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)
  • Analogy – figurative language that makes comparisons in unexpected ways. A literary analogy is often an extended comparison. The purpose is to show similarities in process or in structure. For example, an author might compare a visit to a flea market to an all-you-can-eat buffet, carrying the comparison through a paragraph, section of the work, or an entire piece.
  • Hyperbole – an intentional and extreme exaggeration for emphasis or effect (e.g., This book weighs a ton.)
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Irony – a literary technique used to create meaning that seems to contradict the literal meaning or events (e.g., verbal, situational, dramatic)

Scheme – a figure of speech that concerns word order, syntax letters, and sounds, as opposed to the meaning of words

Possible examples of schemes:

  • Parallelism/parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Antithesis – the direct opposite; the rhetorical contrast using parallels within a sentence (e.g., Give me liberty or give me deat.)
  • Inverted word order
  • Repetition of words
  • Reversed structures

By adding

TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

E4.15 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.15D Produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that appeals to a specific audience and synthesizes information from multiple points of view.

Produce

A MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION WITH

  • GRAPHICS
  • IMAGES
  • SOUND

THAT APPEALS TO A SPECIFIC AUDIENCE AND SYNTHESIZES INFORMATION FROM MULTIPLE POINTS OF VIEW

Possible examples of multimedia presentations:

  • Documentary
  • Class newspaper
  • Docudrama
  • Infomercial
  • Visual or textual parodies
  • Theatrical production
E4.20 Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.V.A - English/Language Arts/Research. Formulate topic and questions.
TxCCRS

CDS.II.C3 - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Refine research topic based on preliminary research and devise a timeline for completing work.

E4.20A Brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic.

Brainstorm, Consult with others, Decide

UPON A TOPIC

Brainstorming – a technique in which many ideas are generated quickly and without judgment or evaluation, usually as part of a problem-solving process or to inspire creative thinking. Brainstorming may be done in a classroom, with a small group, or individually.

Formulate

A MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION TO ADDRESS THE MAJOR RESEARCH TOPIC

Major research question – one clear, significant, researchable question that can be discussed and answered by collecting information from various sources

E4.20B Formulate a plan for engaging in in-depth research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

Formulate

A PLAN FOR ENGAGING IN IN-DEPTH RESEARCH ON A COMPLEX, MULTIFACETED TOPIC

E4.21 Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS

E/LAS.V.B1 - English/Language Arts/Research. Gather relevant sources.

TxCCRS

E/LAS.V.B4 - English/Language Arts/Research. Use source material ethically.

E4.21A Follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source.

Follow

THE RESEARCH PLAN

To gather

EVIDENCE FROM EXPERTS ON THE TOPIC AND TEXTS WRITTEN FOR INFORMED AUDIENCES IN THE FIELD

Including,  but not limited to:

  • Use source materials ethically
  • Use authoritative sources

Distinguish

BETWEEN RELIABLE AND UNRELIABLE SOURCES AND AVOIDING OVER- RELIANCE ON ONE SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evaluate for content
  • Evaluate for purpose
  • Evaluate the author’s credibility
  • Evaluate the data
  • Evaluate Internet sources – check the URL for the following endings: com, edu, org   
  • Evaluate Internet sources for purpose
E4.21B Systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences.

Systematically organize

RELEVANT AND ACCURATE INFORMATION

To support

CENTRAL IDEAS, CONCEPTS, AND THEMES

Outline

IDEAS INTO CONCEPTUAL MAPS, TIMELINES, AND SEPARATE FACTUAL DATA FROM COMPLEX INFERENCES

E4.21C Paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number), differentiating among primary, secondary, and other sources.

Paraphrase, Summarize, Quote, Accurately Cite

ALL RESEARCHED INFORMATION ACCORDING TO A STANDARD FORMAT

Possible examples of standard formats:

  • MLA style format
  • CMS format
  • APA style format
  • Use of an online citation generator to develop a bibliography or works cited

Differentiating

AMONG PRIMARY, SECONDARY, AND OTHER SOURCES

Primary source – a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred and created by someone who was present at the event. Examples of primary source documents include letters, speeches, diaries, surveys, fieldwork, and personal interviews.

Secondary source – a source that is a step removed from the original accounts of an event or experience

E4.22 Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS

E/LAS.V.B2 - English/Language Arts/Research. Evaluate the validity and reliability of sources.

TxCCRS

E/LAS.V.B3 - English/Language Arts/Research. Synthesize and organize information effectively.

E4.22A Modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan.

Modify

THE MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION AS NECESSARY

To refocus

THE RESEARCH PLAN

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evaluate the research question
  • Determine the type of information needed to answer the research question
E4.22B Differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and how that evidence helps create a cogent argument.

Differentiate

BETWEEN THEORIES AND THE EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS THEM

Theory – any systematic and coherent collection of ideas that relate to a specific subject          

Evidence – everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth about an assertion

Determine

WHETHER THE EVIDENCE FOUND IS WEAK OR STRONG AND HOW THAT EVIDENCE HELPS CREATE A COGENT ARGUMENT

E4.22C Critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

Critique

THE RESEARCH PROCESS AT EACH STEP

To implement

CHANGES AS THE NEED OCCURS AND IS IDENTIFIED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review and analyze critically each step of the research process
  • Look critically at your claims
  • Evaluate the research methods
  • Look for possible problems with (or applications of) the researchers' claims
E4.23 Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:

Synthesize

THE RESEARCH INTO A WRITTEN OR AN ORAL PRESENTATION THAT:

TxCCRS E/LAS.V.C - English/Language Arts/Research. Produce and design a document.
E4.23A Provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information.

Provides

AN ANALYSIS

That supports, develops

PERSONAL OPINIONS, AS OPPOSED TO SIMPLY RESTATING EXISTING INFORMATION

E4.23B Uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis.

Uses

A VARIETY OF FORMATS AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES

Possible examples of rhetorical strategies:

  • Logos (logical appeal based on reason; often depends on the use of inductive or deductive reasoning)
  • Pathos (emotional appeal based on an audience's needs, values, and emotional sensibilities)
  • Ethos (ethical appeal based on the character, credibility, or reliability of the writer)

To argue

FOR THE THESIS

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Written presentation
  • Oral presentation
E4.23C Develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments.

Develops

AN ARGUMENT

That incorporates

THE COMPLEXITIES OF AND DISCREPENCIES IN INFORMATION FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES AND PERSPECTIVES WHILE ANTICIPATING AND REFUTING COUNTER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Propose a thesis and offer reasoning, using evidence from multiple sources and perspectives that suggest why the thesis is true
  • To counter-argue, consider a possible argument against the thesis or some aspect of the reasoning and use supporting evidence to negate that argument
E4.23D Uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

Uses

A STYLE MANUAL

Possible examples of style manuals:

  • MLA style format
  • CMS format
  • APA style format

To document

SOURCES AND FORMAT WRITTEN MATERIALS

E4.23E Is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic.

Is of

SUFFICIENT LENGTH AND COMPLEXITY

To address

THE TOPIC

E4.25 Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.III.B - English/Language Arts/Speaking. Develop effective speaking styles for both group and one-on-one situations.
E4.25A Formulate sound arguments by using elements of classical speeches (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, and conclusion), the art of persuasion, rhetorical devices, eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

Formulate

SOUND ARGUMENTS

By using

  • ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL SPEECHES (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, and conclusion)
  • THE ART OF PERSUASION
  • RHETORICAL DEVICES
  • EYE CONTACT
  • SPEAKING RATE (e.g., pauses for effect)
  • VOLUME
  • ENUNCIATION (e.g., speaking clearly and concisely)
  • PURPOSEFUL GESTURES
  • CONVENTIONS OF LANGUAGE

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience (refer to E4.6A for examples)

TO COMMUNICATE IDEAS EFFECTIVELY

Including, but not limited to:

  • In whole group, small group, and one-on-one situations as appropriate for the message
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 04/04/2016
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