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Instructional Focus Document
English IV
TITLE : Unit 04: Synthesizing Informational Text SUGGESTED DURATION : 23 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address word study, reading and writing of expository and procedural texts. The goal of this unit is to evaluate expository text by making and explaining judgments through analysis and interpretation. Students also analyze and write procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Various forms of information texts continue to provide the avenue for the practice of making inferences, summarizing, synthesizing, and providing textual evidence during reading. Students examine teacher-selected and student-selected literature based on individual interests and abilities, providing opportunities for important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres. An emphasis on the integration of listening, reading, and writing skills allow the continued development of processes while providing a foundation for college and career readiness.

In English III, students summarized text by distinguishing between inductive and deductive reasoning. They made subtle inferences and drew complex conclusions between and among multiple texts by translating information from text to graphic or graphic to text. During this unit, students continue to make connections to the real world by analyzing and creating expository and procedural texts relevant to the genre. They continue to summarize text while making and defending subtle inferences about ideas and organizational patterns presented in text. They make logical connections between and among multiple texts while increasing complexity of understanding. They continue to translate information from text to graphic or graphic to text. Students write analytical essays and interpretive responses by analyzing the consistency and clarity of the expressions of the controlling ideas, organizational patterns, and use of rhetorical patterns. They continue to read and write procedural text such as resumes, job and college applications. Word Study is inclusive of genre and literary vocabulary, appropriate academic vocabulary, and vocabulary from the literature. The emphasis of writing conventions and word meaning provides a foundation for continual reflection on communicative accuracy and clarity. In Unit 05, students follow a plan to research a topic of interest not currently reflected in mainstream media.


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Readers create connections to make text personally relevant and useful.

Elements – Style, Viewpoint

Interpretation – Connections, Meaning

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Credibility of sources affects the reliability of information.

Interpretation – Credibility, Reliability

Authors use a repertoire of strategies that enable them to vary form, style, and structure in order to write for different purposes, audiences, and contexts.

Form – Hierarchic Model

Structure – Graphic Elements, Headers, Footers

Purpose/Audience

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Audience and purpose determine format.

Audience/Purpose

Forms – Resume, Application

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Readers infer meaning about a variety of texts using textual evidence to support ideas.

Interpretations – Connections, Understanding

Perception – Ideas

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

MISCONCEPTION:

  • A common misconception about resumes is that people assume that once a resume is created, it will suit all purposes when looking for any job. On the contrary, resumes need to be tailored to the specific organization and position an employee is pursuing by including applicable information on education, background, and skills that are most relevant to the selected position.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts.
  • Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.
  • Accessible language – language that is used so that readers who are unfamiliar with the subject can comprehend the text or discussion with ease
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1A, E4.1B, E4.1C
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1E

Observation Data

 

Teacher – Student Conference

 

Checklist

 

Rubric

 

Reader’s Notebook

 

Writer’s Notebook

 

Vocabulary Notebook

 

Oral Quiz

 

Written Quiz

 

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Culture and History: E4.8A
Expository Text: E4.9A, E4.9B, E4.9C, E4.9D
Procedural Texts: E4.11A, E4.11B
Research Plan: E4.20A
Gathering Sources: E4.21A, E4.21B
Comprehension Skills: E4.Fig19A, E4.Fig19B
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1E
Listening: E4.24A
Teamwork: E4.26A

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E4.13B, E4.13C, E4.13D
Expository and Procedural Texts: E4.15A.i, E4.15A.ii, E4.15A.iii, E4.15A.iv, E4.15A.v, E4.15A.vi, E4.15A.vii, E4.15B.i, E4.15B.ii, E4.15B.iii, E4.15B.iv, E4.15B.v
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E4.1E
Writing Process: E4.13A, E4.13E
Conventions: E4.17A, E4.17B
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E4.18A
Spelling: E4.19A
Listening: E4.24A
Teamwork: E4.26A
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E4.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E4.1A Determine the meaning of technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.

Determine

THE MEANING OF TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words  

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E4.1B Analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings.

Analyze

TEXTUAL CONTEXT

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To draw conclusions

ABOUT THE NUANCE IN WORD MEANINGS

Nuance – a subtle distinction or fine detail

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Based on the textual context, use clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a selected word
  • Examine the part of speech and the message of the section of text to help identify the nuance in the word’s meaning
  • Draw a conclusion about the nuance (e.g., subtle shades of meaning, gradations of meaning) in the word’s meaning
E4.1C Use the relationship between words encountered in analogies to determine their meanings (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, connotation/denotation).

Use

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORDS ENCOUNTERED IN ANALOGIES

Analogy – a vocabulary exercise in which an association between a concept and its attribute is present (e.g., hot:cold as north:_____)

To determine

THEIR MEANINGS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the word relationship (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, part to whole, whole to part, function, description, connotation/denotation)
  • Determine the meaning by examining the relationship
E4.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
E4.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e. g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E4.Fig19B Make complex inferences (e.g., inductive and deductive) about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

STAAR Note:
Paired passage questions associated with (TEKS number) assess similarities and differences in ideas, details, theme, mood, tone, organization, and purpose within or across texts of various genres (e.g., expository-expository, expository-fiction, poem-expository, persuasive-poem). Making connections may require inferential thinking.

E4.8 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE IN CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the purpose of an entire informational text
  • Determine the purpose of a section(s) of an informational text
  • Determine the purpose of a specific sentence from an informational text
  • Make inferences and draw conclusions within cultural and historical contexts

Possible verbs to describe purpose:

  • To inform, explain,  demonstrate, reveal, teach, communicate, establish, document
  • To illustrate, show, describe, indicate, clarify
  • To compare, contrast
  • To provide, give information/examples
  • To persuade, express an opinion, prove, encourage, argue, establish, convince, promote
  • To reinforce (an idea), emphasize, call attention to
  • To suggest, imply
  • To celebrate, recognize
  • To question, criticize, analyze

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.C - English/Language Arts/Reading. Describe, analyze, and evaluate information within and across literary and other texts from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
E4.8A Analyze the consistency and clarity of the expression of the controlling idea and the ways in which the organizational and rhetorical patterns of text support or confound the author's meaning or purpose.

Analyze

THE CONSISTENCY AND CLARITY OF THE EXPRESSION OF THE CONTROLLING IDEA AND THE WAYS IN WHICH THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND RHETORICAL PATTERNS OF TEXT SUPPORT OR CONFOUND THE AUTHOR’S MEANING OR PURPOSE

Controlling idea  the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author's purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.

Organizational pattern  the pattern an author constructs as he organizes his or her ideas and provides supporting details

Rhetorical pattern  the way information is organized (e.g., cause and-effect, chronological-order, compare and contrast)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis:

  • Identify the controlling idea
  • Identify the organizational and rhetorical patterns that support or confound the author’s meaning or purpose
  • Explain the effect of consistency or inconsistency on clarity of the text

Possible organizational patterns:

  • Cause and effect
  • Sequential order
  • Description
  • Order of importance
  • Compare-and-contrast
  • Logical order
  • Classification schemes
  • Proposition-and-support
  • Problem-and-solution
E4.9 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT EXPOSITORY TEXT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole text including the thesis/controlling idea and other key ideas
  • Make inferences related to a section of the text
  • Make inferences related to particular sentences, ideas, or details

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in expository texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E4.9A Summarize a text in a manner that captures the author's viewpoint, its main ideas, and its elements without taking a position or expressing an opinion.

Summarize

A TEXT IN A MANNER THAT CAPTURES THE AUTHOR’S VIEWPOINT, ITS MAIN IDEAS, AND ITS ELEMENTS WITHOUT TAKING A POSITION OR EXPRESSING AN OPINION

Summarize  to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main ideas. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Viewpoint  a position from which something is observed or considered

E4.9B Explain how authors writing on the same issue reached different conclusions because of differences in assumptions, evidence, reasoning, and viewpoints.

Explain

HOW AUTHORS WRITING ON THE SAME ISSUE REACHED DIFFERENT CONCLUSIONS BECAUSE OF DIFFERENCES IN:

  • ASSUMPTIONS
  • EVIDENCE
  • REASONING
  • VIEWPOINTS
E4.9C Make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns.

Make, Defend

SUBTLE INFERENCES AND COMPLEX CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE IDEAS IN TEXT AND THEIR ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS

Subtle inference  readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. A subtle inference is one in which the bits of information are not as easily connected.

Drawing conclusions  a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Organizational pattern  the pattern an author constructs as he or she organizes his or her ideas and provides supporting details. Examples of commonly used patterns are cause and effect, problem and solution, description, and order of importance.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Defend with textual evidence, credible sources, and/or background knowledge and experience

Note:
Organizational patterns can be found in sections of text (single or multiple paragraphs) or throughout an entire text.

Refer to E1.Fig19B for related comprehension skills.

E4.9D Synthesize ideas and make logical connections (e.g., thematic links, author analysis) among multiple texts representing similar or different genres and technical sources and support those findings with textual evidence.

Synthesize

IDEAS

Synthesize  combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

Make

LOGICAL CONNECTIONS AMONG MULTIPLE TEXTS REPRESENTING SIMILAR OR DIFFERENT GENRES AND TECHNICAL SOURCES

Support

THOSE FINDINGS WITH TEXTUAL SUPPORT

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in synthesis

  • Identify similar and related information from multiple texts representing similar or different genres and technical sources (e.g., thematic links, author analyses)
  • Draw conclusions about the connections and relationships between and among the texts
  • Explain the connections and how they support the conclusions drawn
  • Support with textual evidence

Thematic link  a logical connection made between or among texts that share similar themes

Author analysis  a process that connects the author's logical relationship to the text he or she wrote (e.g., perspective, purpose)

E4.11 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts.

Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

Understand, Glean, Use

INFORMATION IN PROCEDURAL TEXTS AND DOCUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the purpose of embedded procedural texts and graphics
  • Interpret information and details within procedural texts and graphics

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E4.11A Draw conclusions about how the patterns of organization and hierarchic structures support the understandability of text.

Draw conclusions

ABOUT HOW THE PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATON AND HIERARCHIC STRUCTURES SUPPORT THE UNDERSTANDABILITY OF TEXT

Procedural text – a type of informational text that is written with the intent to explain the steps in the procedure, as in a recipe. Procedural text could house data that requires reader interpretation.

E4.11B Evaluate the structures of text (e.g., format, headers) for their clarity and organizational coherence and for the effectiveness of their graphic representations.

Evaluate

STRUCTURES OF TEXT FOR THEIR CLARITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL COHERENCE AND FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THEIR GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Determine the clarity and organization of text structures (e.g., format, headers)
  • Explain the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of graphic representation on the clarity and meaning
E4.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.13B Structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices to convey meaning.

Structure

IDEAS IN A SUSTAINED AND PERSUASIVE WAY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, and/or lists as applicable
  • Select a form or structure appropriate to the genre, purpose, and audience

Develop

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In timed and open-ended situations
  • Develop a draft using a selected organizational pattern appropriate to the genre, audience, and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the thesis or controlling idea of the piece
  • Develop a coherent draft that is focused and well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Include rhetorical devices as appropriate to convey meaning

Retorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process. This SE combines prewriting (making a plan) and writing a draft (putting thoughts onto paper). The focus is on content, not mechanics.

E4.13C Revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases.

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To clarify meaning
  • To achieve specific rhetorical purposes
  • To achieve consistency of tone
  • To achieve logical organization

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

By rearranging

THE WORDS, SENTENCES, AND PARAGRAPHS TO EMPLOY TROPES, SCHEMES

Trope – nonliteral or figurative language

Possible examples of tropes:

  • Metaphor – a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.)
  • Simile – a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)
  • Analogy – figurative language that makes comparisons in unexpected ways. A literary analogy is often an extended comparison. The purpose is to show similarities in process or in structure. For example, an author might compare a visit to a flea market to an all-you-can-eat buffet, carrying the comparison through a paragraph, section of the work, or an entire piece.
  • Hyperbole – an intentional and extreme exaggeration for emphasis or effect (e.g., This book weighs a ton.)
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Irony – a literary technique used to create meaning that seems to contradict the literal meaning or events (e.g., verbal, situational, dramatic)

Scheme – a figure of speech that concerns word order, syntax letters, and sounds, as opposed to the meaning of words

Possible examples of schemes:

  • Parallelism/parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Antithesis – the direct opposite; the rhetorical contrast using parallels within a sentence (e.g., Give me liberty or give me deat.)
  • Inverted word order
  • Repetition of words
  • Reversed structures

By adding

TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

E4.13D Edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling.

Edit

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conventions/Grammar (refer to E4.17AB)
  • Capitalization and Punctuation (refer to E4.18A)
  • Spelling (refer to E4.19A)
  • Previously taught expectations in grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

Note:
This is the fourth step in the writing process. The focus is on grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E4.15 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E4.15A Write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

Write

AN ANALYTICAL ESSAY OF SUFFICIENT LENGTH THAT INCLUDES:

Analytical essay – an essay that analyzes and interprets a work of literature by using specific examples from the text to build a logical argument beyond a summary or description of the work

E4.15A.i effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sentences are purposeful, varied, and well-controlled (refer to 4.17C)
  • The essay is thoughtful and engaging
E4.15A.ii rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Examples of rhetorical devices in expository writing:

  • Overstatement
  • Understatement
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Hyperbole
  • Analogies
  • Irony
  • Figurative language

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.


E4.15A.iii a clear thesis statement or controlling idea

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Controlling idea – the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.

Including, but not limited to:

  • A cogent thesis statement
  • Ideas are strongly related to the thesis and are focused on the specific aspect of the text the writer must address

 

E4.15A.iv a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence and logical progression

Possible examples of organization structures:

  • Chronological
  • Hierarchical
  • Pro/Con
  • Cause-and-effect
  • Comparison/Contrast
  • Attributes
  • Enumeration (reasons why)
E4.15A.v relevant and substantial evidence and well-chosen details

Including, but not limited to:

  • Explicit, insightful, clearly analytical interpretation of the text
  • Relevant, well-chosen, smoothly integrated textual evidence
E4.15A.vi information on all relevant perspectives and consideration of the validity, reliability, and relevance of primary and secondary sources

Primary Source – a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred. Researchers may collect primary source documents through letters, speeches, diaries, surveys, field work, or personal interviews.

Secondary Source – a source that is a step removed from the original accounts of an event or experience

Including, but not limited to:

  • Compile information from primary and secondary sources in systematic ways

Credibility – determines the validity, reliability, and relevance of sources

E4.15A.vii an analysis of views and information that contradict the thesis statement and the evidence presented for it

Contradiction – an opposing perspective or opinion

E4.15B Write procedural and work-related documents (e.g., résumés, proposals, college applications, operation manuals) that include:

Write

PROCEDURAL OR WORK-RELATED DOCUMENTS

Refer to the Performance Indicators for instructional considerations.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Resume
  • Proposals
  • College applications
  • Operation manuals
E4.15B.i a clearly stated purpose combined with a well-supported viewpoint on the topic
E4.15B.ii appropriate formatting structures (e.g., headings, graphics, white space)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Headings, subheadings
  • Graphics
  • White space
E4.15B.iii relevant questions that engage readers and address their potential problems and misunderstandings
E4.15B.iv accurate technical information in accessible language

Accessible language – language that is used so that readers who are unfamiliar with the subject can comprehend the text or discussion with ease

Including, but not limited to:

  • Simplifying technical vocabulary
E4.15B.v appropriate organizational structures supported by facts and details (documented if appropriate)
E4.20 Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.V.A - English/Language Arts/Research. Formulate topic and questions.
TxCCRS Refine research topic based on preliminary research and devise a timeline for completing work.
E4.20A Brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic.

Brainstorm, Consult with others, Decide

UPON A TOPIC

Brainstorming – a technique in which many ideas are generated quickly and without judgment or evaluation, usually as part of a problem-solving process or to inspire creative thinking. Brainstorming may be done in a classroom, with a small group, or individually.

Formulate

A MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION TO ADDRESS THE MAJOR RESEARCH TOPIC

Major research question – one clear, significant, researchable question that can be discussed and answered by collecting information from various sources

E4.21 Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Gather relevant sources.
TxCCRS Use source material ethically.
E4.21A Follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source.

Follow

THE RESEARCH PLAN

To gather

EVIDENCE FROM EXPERTS ON THE TOPIC AND TEXTS WRITTEN FOR INFORMED AUDIENCES IN THE FIELD

Including,  but not limited to:

  • Use source materials ethically
  • Use authoritative sources

Distinguish

BETWEEN RELIABLE AND UNRELIABLE SOURCES AND AVOIDING OVER- RELIANCE ON ONE SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Evaluate for content
  • Evaluate for purpose
  • Evaluate the author’s credibility
  • Evaluate the data
  • Evaluate Internet sources – check the URL for the following endings: com, edu, org   
  • Evaluate Internet sources for purpose
E4.21B Systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences.

Systematically organize

RELEVANT AND ACCURATE INFORMATION

To support

CENTRAL IDEAS, CONCEPTS, AND THEMES

Outline

IDEAS INTO CONCEPTUAL MAPS, TIMELINES, AND SEPARATE FACTUAL DATA FROM COMPLEX INFERENCES

The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 04/04/2016
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