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Instructional Focus Document
English III
TITLE : Unit 04: Powerful Persuasion SUGGESTED DURATION : 22 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address word study, reading, and writing of persuasive texts as well as how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms of media to impact meaning. The goal of this unit is to provide students the skills and processes to deconstruct both print and non-print messages to make informed decisions based on the credibility of sources. Through the analysis of the persuasive techniques, students will be able to generate valid claims and support them with logical, effective appeals and arguments.

In English II, students examined political debates for their use of rhetorical and logical fallacies such as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks. Students analyzed coverage of the same topic in various media forms to determine how perception or bias influences the audience. Students incorporated their persuasive knowledge and their analysis of media techniques to write a persuasive text to influence attitudes or actions of a specific audience using a clear position supported with relevant and creditable evidence and produced a multimedia presentation to convey a distinctive point of view. During this unit, the examination of informational texts continues through the analysis of persuasive techniques in texts and in media. Students examine historical and contemporary political debates for their use of techniques such as logical fallacies, circular logic, and hasty generalizations and their effectiveness to influence. Media messages are compared to traditional texts in their presentations that reflect social and cultural views. Students determine credibility and provide evidence by analyzing the relevance and quality of information given and compare the coverage of the same events in media in order to evaluate objectivity. Students write persuasive texts using a clear position and supporting evidence to influence attitudes or actions of a specific audience. In English IV students will draw conclusions about credibility by examining assumptions conveyed in text. Media messages will be evaluated for the presentation of ideas to understand the notions of bias, audience, and purpose. Students will incorporate their persuasive knowledge to write an evaluative essay to influence attitudes or actions of a specific audience using a clear position with supporting and relevant evidence


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Effective readers analyze how authors use strategies to influence the attitudes or actions of others and make decisions based on their findings.

Techniques – Logical fallacies

Perspective – Beliefs

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Media presentation may influence perspective.

Form – Media

Perspective – Objective

Elements – Tone

Structure – Formality

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Authors use techniques, form, and structure to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience.

Techniques – Persuasion

Form – Argumentative Essay

Structure – Logical Arguments, Evidence

Perception – Attitude, Claim

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Readers infer meaning about a variety of texts using textual evidence to support ideas.

Interpretation – Connections, Understanding

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

MISCONCEPTIONS:

  • Because media viewers tend to be passive audiences, students may have difficulty identifying the persuasive techniques media uses to influence their choices and perceptions.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Logical fallacyan incorrect or problematic argument that is not based on sound reasoning (e.g., Because everything is bigger in Texas, you can expect a bigger salary in Texas.)
  • Repetition – the act of repeating for emphasis
  • Parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Overstatement – an exaggerated statement
  • Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages
  • Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E3.1A, E3.1B
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E3.1C, E3.1D, E3.1E

Observation Data

 

Teacher-Student Conference

 

Checklist

 

Rubric

 

Reader’s Notebook

 

Writer’s Notebook

 

Vocabulary Notebook

 

Oral Quiz

 

Written Quiz

 

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Literary Nonfiction: E3.6A
Culture and History: E3.8A
Expository Text: E3.9A, E3.9C
Persuasive Text: E3.10A, E3.10B
Media Literacy: E3.12A, E3.12B, E3.12C, E3.12D
Gathering Sources: E3.21B, E3.21C
Synthesizing Information: E3.22B
Comprehension Skills: E3.Fig19A, E3.Fig19B
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E3.1E
Expository Text: E3.9B, E3.9D
Listening: E3.24A, E3.24B
Teamwork: E3.26A

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E3.13B, E3.13C
Persuasive Texts: E3.16A, E3.16B, E3.16C, E3.16D, E3.16E, E3.16F
Organizing and Presenting Ideas: E3.23A, E3.23B, E3.23C, E3.23E
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E3.1E
Writing Process: E3.13A, E3.13D, E3.13E
Expository and Procedural Texts: E3.15A.i, E3.15A.ii, E3.15A.iii, E3.15A.vi
Conventions: E3.17A, E3.17B
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E3.18A
Spelling: E3.19A
Listening: E3.24A, E3.24B
Teamwork: E3.26A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E3.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E3.1A Determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.
Supporting Standard

Determine

THE MEANING OF GRADE-LEVEL TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER LINGUISTIC ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E3.1B Analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

TEXTUAL CONTEXT

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To draw conclusions

ABOUT THE NUANCE IN WORD MEANINGS

Nuance – a subtle distinction or fine detail

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Based on the textual context, use clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a selected word
  • Examine the part of speech and the message of the section of text to help identify the nuance in the word’s meaning
  • Draw a conclusion about the nuance (e.g., subtle shades of meaning, gradations of meaning) in the word’s meaning

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – B1 – Identify new words and concepts acquired though study of their relationships to other words and concepts.

CDS II. Foundational Skills – A2 – Use a variety of strategies to understand the meaning of new words.

E3.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
E3.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e.g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E3.Fig19B Make complex inferences (e.g., inductive and deductive) about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
Readiness Standard (Fiction, Expository)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama, Persuasive)

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

STAAR Note:
Paired passage questions associated with (TEKS number) assess similarities and differences in ideas, details, theme, mood, tone, organization, and purpose within or across texts of various genres (e.g., expository-expository, expository-fiction, poem-expository, persuasive-poem). Making connections may require inferential thinking.

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – A4 – Draw and support complex inferences from text to summarize, draw conclusions, and distinguish facts from simple assertions and opinions.

CDS II. Foundational Skills – A5 – Analyze textual information critically.

E3.6 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw Conclusions

ABOUT THE VARIED STRUCTURAL PATTERNS AND FEATURES OF LITERARY NONFICTION

  • Make inferences related to the whole literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to a part of the literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to the structure of literary nonfiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to features (elements) of literary nonfiction (e.g., characterization, point of view, setting, events)
  • Make inferences related to specific details in literary nonfiction text including author's purpose

Respond by providing

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in literary nonfiction texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
TxCCRS Evaluate the use of both literal and figurative language to inform and shape the perceptions of readers.
TxCCRS Identify and analyze how an author's use of language appeals to the senses, creates imagery, and suggests mood.
E3.6A

Analyze how rhetorical techniques (e.g., repetition, parallel structure, understatement, overstatement) in literary essays, true life adventures, and historically important speeches influence the reader, evoke emotions, and create meaning.


Supporting Standard

Analyze

HOW RHETORICAL TECHNIQUES IN

  • HISTORICALLY IMPORTANT SPEECHES

INFLUENCE THE READER, EVOKE EMOTIONS, AND CREATE MEANING

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Possible examples of rhetorical techniques:

  • Repetition – the act of repeating for emphasis
  • Parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Overstatement – an exaggerated statement

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify rhetorical techniques in selected text
  • Consider and then explain the way(s)  the technique(s) influenced the reader, created meaning, and/or evoked emotion
E3.8 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE IN CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the purpose of an entire informational text
  • Determine the purpose of a section(s) of an informational text
  • Determine the purpose of a specific sentence from an informational text
  • Make inferences and draw conclusions within cultural and historical contexts

Possible verbs to describe purpose:

  • To inform, explain,  demonstrate, reveal, teach, communicate, establish, document
  • To illustrate, show, describe, indicate, clarify
  • To compare, contrast
  • To provide, give information/examples
  • To persuade, express an opinion, prove, encourage, argue, establish, convince, promote
  • To reinforce (an idea), emphasize, call attention to
  • To suggest, imply
  • To celebrate, recognize
  • To question, criticize, analyze

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.C - English/Language Arts/Reading. Describe, analyze, and evaluate information within and across literary and other texts from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
E3.8A Analyze how the style, tone, and diction of a text advance the author's purpose and perspective or stance.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

HOW THE STYLE, TONE, AND DICTION OF A TEXT ADVANCE THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE AND PERSPECTIVE OR STANCE

Style – the way something is written, in contrast to its content. (e.g., Hemingway’s writing style is terse, blunt, and conversational.)

Tone – the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing (e.g., serious, humorous, logical, emotional)

Diction – choice of words in speaking or writing for clear and effective expression

Perspective – stance or viewpoint

Including, but not limited to:

Steps in analysis:

  • Identify the author’s purpose
  • Identify the author’s perspective
  • Identify style, tone and diction
  • Explain how style, tone, and diction support and present the author’s purpose and perspective
E3.9 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT EXPOSITORY TEXT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole text including the thesis/controlling idea and other key ideas
  • Make inferences related to a section of the text
  • Make inferences related to particular sentences, ideas, or details

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in expository texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E3.9A Summarize a text in a manner that captures the author's viewpoint, its main ideas, and its elements without taking a position or expressing an opinion.
Readiness Standard

Summarize

A TEXT IN A MANNER THAT CAPTURES THE AUTHOR’S VIEWPOINT, ITS MAIN IDEAS, AND ITS ELEMENTS WITHOUT TAKING A POSITION OR EXPRESSING AN OPINION

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main ideas. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Viewpoint – a position from which something is observed or considered

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – A3 – Identify explicit and implicit textual information including main ideas an author’s purpose.

II. Reading – A9 – Identify and analyze the audience, purpose, and message of an informational or persuasive text.

E3.9C Make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns.
Readiness Standard

Make, Defend

SUBTLE INFERENCES AND COMPLEX CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE IDEAS IN TEXT AND THEIR ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS

Subtle inference – readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. A subtle inference is one in which the bits of information are not as easily connected.

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Organizational pattern – the pattern an author constructs as he or she organizes his or her ideas and provides supporting details. Examples of commonly used patterns are cause and effect, problem and solution, description, and order of importance.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Defend with textual evidence, credible sources, and/or background knowledge and experience

Note:
Organizational patterns can be found in sections of text (single or multiple paragraphs) or throughout an entire text

Refer to E1.Fig19B for related comprehension skills 

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – A4 – Draw and support complex inferences from text to summarize, draw conclusions, and distinguish facts from simple assertions and opinions.

E3.10 Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions
ABOUT PERSUASIVE TEXT
Including, but not limited to:

  • Analyze for structure or organization of entire text or a section of text
  • Analyze details that support the author's claim
  • Draw conclusions about the author's message/viewpoint by analyzing for rhetorical techniques and devices used by the author (e.g., generalizations, examples, figurative language, understatement, hyperbole, rhetorical questions, shifts in point of view, etc.)

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR ANALYSIS
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in persuasive texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E3.10A Evaluate how the author's purpose and stated or perceived audience affect the tone of persuasive texts.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

HOW THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE AND STATED OR PERCEIVED AUDIENCE AFFECT THE TONE OF PERSUASIVE TEXTS

Tone – the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing (e.g., teasing, tender, regretful, respectful, urgent)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Determine the author’s purpose in the text
  • Identify the stated or perceived audience
  • Determine the author’s tone
  • Explain the impact of purpose and audience on tone
E3.10B Analyze historical and contemporary political debates for such logical fallacies as non-sequiturs, circular logic, and hasty generalizations.

Analyze 

HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL DEBATES FOR LOGICAL FALLACIES

Logical fallacy – an incorrect or problematic argument that is not based on sound reasoning (e.g., Because everything is bigger in Texas, you can expect a bigger salary in Texas.)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify logical fallacies in historical and contemporary political debates
  • Explain the purpose and use of rhetorical and logical fallacies

Logical fallacies include, but are not limited to:

  • Non-sequitur – a logical fallacy in which an inference is made that does not follow from its premise (e.g., If I buy this car, everyone will love me.)
  • Hasty generalization – a conclusion drawn from limited or insufficient evidence and often the result of bias
  • Circular logic – a logical fallacy in which an assumption is made in a definition or argument that includes the very point that one is trying to prove (e.g., I love Mr. Johnson’s class because I’m always happy in there.)

Previously introduced logical fallacies:

  • Bandwagon
  • Incorrect factual claims
  • False authority
  • Loaded terms
  • Caricatures
  • Leading questions
  • False assumptions
  • Incorrect premises
E3.12 Reading/Media Literacy.

Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

Use

COMPREHENSION SKILLS

Analyze

HOW WORDS, IMAGES, GRAPHICS, AND SOUNDS WORK TOGETHER IN VARIOUS FORMS TO IMPACT MEANING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret words, images, and sounds in media and consider their effect on meaning
  • Determine the purpose of embedded media
  • Determine how details within embedded media supports information in the text

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
E3.12A Evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

HOW MESSAGES PRESENTED IN MEDIA REFLECT SOCIAL AND CULTURAL VIEWS IN WAYS DIFFERENT FROM TRADITIONAL TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify the message(s) presented in media and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Identify the message(s) presented in a traditional text and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Examine and then explain the differences in how the identified messages and social and cultural views are presented in media versus traditional texts

Possible forms of media include:

  • Advertisement – print and electronic (e.g., flyers, brochures, posters, signs)
  • Newspaper
  • Magazine
  • Radio program (songs, lyrical music)
  • Web page – online information
  • Televised news
  • Documentary
  • Photograph (with or without caption)

TxCCRS Note:
II. Reading – A11 – Identify, analyze, and evaluate similarities and differences in how multiple texts present information, argue a position or relate a theme.

E3.12B Evaluate the interactions of different techniques (e.g., layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, sound in electronic journalism) used in multi-layered media.

Evaluate

THE INTERACTIONS OF DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES USED IN MULTI-LAYERED MEDIA

Multi-layered media – the use of visuals (e.g., graphics), sound, text/print, and more

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify visual, sound, and text techniques used
  • Identify how visual, sound, and text are organized (e.g., layout) and how they interact
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the interaction among all three on the message

Techniques include, but are not limited to:

  • Typeface in print media
  • Images
  • Text/print
E3.12C Evaluate the objectivity of coverage of the same event in various types of media.

Evaluate

THE OBJECTIVITY OF COVERAGE OF THE SAME EVENT IN VARIOUS TYPES OF MEDIA

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify perception/bias
  • Determine the objectivity of each media coverage
  • Explain the differences in the coverage (in relation to bias/perception)
  • Explain the effectiveness in conveying the intended meaning or influence on audiences
E3.12D Evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CHANGES IN FORMALITY AND TONE ACROSS VARIOUS MEDIA FOR DIFFERENT AUDIENCES AND PURPOSES

Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages

Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet  or source (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • View media presentations on the same subject but in different forms of media (e.g., the same news story relayed on a television network, a local newspaper and a national news magazine)
  • Identify formality and tone in each presentation
  • Examine and then explain how the formality and tone change for different audiences and purposes
E3.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
E3.13B Structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices to convey meaning.
Readiness Standard

Structure

IDEAS IN A SUSTAINED AND PERSUASIVE WAY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, and/or lists as applicable
  • Select a form or structure appropriate to the genre, purpose, and audience

Develop

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In timed and open-ended situations
  • Develop a draft using a selected organizational pattern appropriate to the genre, audience, and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the thesis or controlling idea of the piece
  • Develop a coherent draft that is focused and well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Include rhetorical devices as appropriate to convey meaning

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process. This SE combines prewriting (making a plan) and writing a draft (putting thoughts onto paper). The focus is on content, not mechanics.

TxCCRS Note:
I. Writing – A2 – Generate ideas and gather information relevant to the topic and purpose, keeping careful records of outside sources.

Writing – A3 – Evaluate relevance, quality, sufficiency, and depth of preliminary ideas and information, organize material generated, and formulate a thesis.

E3.13C Revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases.
Readiness Standard

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To clarify meaning
  • To achieve specific rhetorical purposes
  • To achieve consistency of tone
  • To achieve logical organization

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

By rearranging

THE WORDS, SENTENCES, AND PARAGRAPHS TO EMPLOY TROPES, SCHEMES

Trope – nonliteral or figurative language

Possible examples of tropes:

  • Metaphor – a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.)
  • Simile – a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)
  • Analogy – figurative language that makes comparisons in unexpected ways. A literary analogy is often an extended comparison. The purpose is to show similarities in process or in structure. For example, an author might compare a visit to a flea market to an all-you-can-eat buffet, carrying this comparison through a paragraph, a section of the work, or an entire piece.
  • Hyperbole – an intentional and extreme exaggeration for emphasis or effect (e.g., This book weighs a ton.)
  • Understatement – a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Irony – a literary technique used to create meaning that seems to contradict the literal meaning or events (e.g., verbal, situational, dramatic)

Scheme – a figure of speech that concerns word order, syntax letters, and sounds, as opposed to the meaning of words

Possible examples of schemes:

  • Parallelism/parallel structure – a rhetorical device in which the same grammatical structure is used within a sentence or paragraph to show that two or more ideas have equal importance
  • Antithesis – the direct opposite; the rhetorical contrast using parallels within a sentence (e.g., give me liberty or give me death)
  • Inverted word order
  • Repetition of words
  • Reversed structures

By adding

TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

TxCCRS Note:
Writing – A4 – Recognize the importance of revision as the key to effective writing. Each draft should refine key ideas and organize them more logically and fluidly, use language more precisely and effectively, and draw the reader to the author’s purpose.

E3.15 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
E3.15C Write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that:
Readiness Standard

Write

AN INTERPRETATION OF AN EXPOSITORY OR A LITERARY TEXT

Interpretative response – an analysis of a piece of literature in which the writer takes apart what was written by another author and explains it

E3.15C.v anticipates and responds to readers' questions or contradictory information
Readiness Standard
E3.16 Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:
Readiness Standard

Write

AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TO THE APPROPRIATE AUDIENCE

Argumentative essay – an essay in which the writer develops or debates a topic using logic and persuasion

Possible examples of argumentative essays:

  • Evaluative essays
  • Proposals

Including, but not limited to:

E3.16A A clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and/or expressions of commonly accepted beliefs.
Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Position – an opinion about a particular subject

Including, but not limited to:

  • Clear and specific thesis/position
  • All ideas strongly relate to the thesis/position and are focused on the issue
  • Facts (support with examples, statistics, etc.)
  • Expert opinions
  • Quotations
  • Expressions of commonly accepted beliefs
  • Descriptions (e.g., analogies)
E3.16B Accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context).

Divergent views – different views

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognize the complexities of the issue
  • Consider opposing or alternate points of view
  • Use of the author’s own words in context
E3.16C An organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context.
Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organization of a paper – the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.
E3.16D Information on the complete range of relevant perspectives.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Recognize the complexities of the issue
  • Consider opposing or alternate points of view
E3.16E Demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used.
Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Primary source – a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred. Researchers may collect primary source documents through letters, speeches, diaries, surveys, field work, or personal interviews.

Secondary source –  a source that is a step removed from the original accounts of an event or experience

Including, but not limited to:

  • Consider the integrity, trustworthiness, and purpose of the author
E3.16F Language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs).
Readiness Standard (Reporting Category 4 Composition)
Supporting Standard (Reporting Category 5 Revision)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Appeals to logic
  • Appeals to emotion
  • Appeals to ethical beliefs
E3.21 Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Gather relevant sources.
TxCCRS Use source material ethically.
E3.21B Systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences.

Systematically organize

RELEVANT AND ACCURATE INFORMATION

To support

CENTRAL IDEAS, CONCEPTS, AND THEMES

Outline

IDEAS INTO CONCEPTUAL MAPS, TIMELINES, AND SEPARATE FACTUAL DATA FROM COMPLEX INFERENCES

E3.21C Paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number), differentiating among primary, secondary, and other sources.

Paraphrase, Summarize, Quote, Accurately Cite

ALL RESEARCHED INFORMATION ACCORDING TO A STANDARD FORMAT

Possible examples of standard formats:

  • MLA style format
  • CMS format
  • APA style format
  • Use of an online citation generator to develop a bibliography or works cited

Differentiating

AMONG PRIMARY, SECONDARY, AND OTHER SOURCES

Primary source – a source from the time in which an event being studied occurred and created by someone who was present at the event. Examples of primary source documents include letters, speeches, diaries, surveys, fieldwork, and personal interviews.

Secondary source – a source that is a step removed from the original accounts of an event or experience

TxCCRS Note:
V. Research – B3 – Synthesize and organize information effectively.

V. Research – B4 – Use source material ethically.

E3.22 Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Evaluate the validity and reliability of sources.
TxCCRS Synthesize and organize information effectively.
E3.22B Differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and how that evidence helps create a cogent argument.

Differentiate

BETWEEN THEORIES AND THE EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS THEM

Theory – any systematic and coherent collection of ideas that relate to a specific subject    

Evidence – everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth about an assertion

Determine

WHETHER THE EVIDENCE FOUND IS WEAK OR STRONG AND HOW THAT EVIDENCE HELPS CREATE A COGENT ARGUMENT

E3.23 Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:

Synthesize

THE RESEARCH INTO A WRITTEN OR AN ORAL PRESENTATION THAT:

E3.23A Provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information.

Provides

AN ANALYSIS

That supports, develops

PERSONAL OPINIONS, AS OPPOSED TO SIMPLY RESTATING EXISTING INFORMATION

TxCCRS Note:
CDS I. Key Cognitive Skills – B2 – Construct well-reasoned arguments to explain phenomena, validate conjectures, or support positions.

CDS I. Key Cognitive Skills – B3 – Gather evidence to support arguments, findings, or lines of reasoning.

E3.23B Uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis.

Uses

A VARIETY OF FORMATS AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES

Possible examples of rhetorical strategies:

  • Logos (logical appeal based on reason; often depends on the use of inductive or deductive reasoning)
  • Pathos (emotional appeal based on an audience's needs, values, and emotional sensibilities)
  • Ethos (ethical appeal based on the character, credibility, or reliability of the writer)

To argue

FOR THE THESIS

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments

Including, but not limited to:

  • Written presentation
  • Oral presentation
E3.23C Develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments.

Develops

AN ARGUMENT

That incorporates

THE COMPLEXITIES OF AND DISCREPENCIES IN INFORMATION FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES AND PERSPECTIVES WHILE ANTICIPATING AND REFUTING COUNTER-ARGUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Propose a thesis and offer reasoning, using evidence from multiple sources and perspectives that suggest why the thesis is true
  • To counter-argue, consider a possible argument against the thesis or some aspect of the reasoning and use supporting evidence to negate that argument

TxCCRS Note:
CDS I. Key Cognitive Skills – F2 – Evaluate sources for quality of content, validity, credibility, and relevance.

CDS I. Key Cognitive Skills – F3 – Include the ideas of others and the complexities of the debate, issue, or problem.

E3.23E Is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic.

Is of

SUFFICIENT LENGTH AND COMPLEXITY

To address

THE TOPIC

The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/31/2016
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