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Instructional Focus Document
English II
TITLE : Unit 01: Traveling Through World Literature SUGGESTED DURATION : 23 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address word study, writing, and reading of twentieth century world literature to support the critical analysis and creation of fictional text through the use of complex literary elements and techniques specific to the genre. Various forms of text including classical, mythical, and traditional literature and literary nonfiction representing a range of diverse cultures and historical backgrounds provide the avenue for continued use and practice of making inferences, summarizing, synthesizing, and providing textual evidence while reading. Students examine literature and related media to make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres. An emphasis on the integration of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills supports the continued development of processes while providing a framework for college and career readiness.  

Prior to this unit, the English I TEKS required students to analyze complex elements of fiction and literary nonfiction, and explain the effects of multifaceted literary techniques while comparing themes across literary and informational genres. During this unit, students analyze isolated scenes and their contributions to the success of the plot in a variety of works of fiction and literary nonfiction. Less obvious (example: symbolism, connotation) and more complex literary techniques (example: hyperbole, allegory, allusion, flashback) are analyzed for their complexity as students review literature across time. Students write engaging stories to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and experiences using literary strategies that enhance plot, character development, mood, and tone. Word study is inclusive of genre specific vocabulary, literary terms, and appropriate vocabulary from the literature. The emphasis of writing conventions and vocabulary provides a foundation for continual reflection on communicative accuracy and clarity. In English III, students evaluate how different literary elements shape the author’s portrayal of the plot and setting in works of fiction.


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Understanding the connections between literary elements facilitates the reader’s ability to make meaning of text.

Elements – Point of view, Tone, Characters, Plot, Theme

Conventions – Grammar, Punctuation, Capitalization, Spelling

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Literary techniques are used to heighten interest, appeal to an audience, and effectively communicate a message.

Techniques – Dialogue, Suspense, Figurative Language

Form – Story

Interpretation – Message

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Authors use conventions of written language to communicate clearly and effectively.

Conventions – Grammar, Punctuation, Capitalization, Spelling

Understanding the connections between the literary elements facilitates the reader’s ability to make meaning of text.

Elements – Characters

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Elements – Tone, Voice

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Readers infer meaning about a variety of texts using textual evidence to support ideas.

Interpretation – Connections, Understanding

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

MISCONCEPTIONS:

  • Students often confuse tone and mood, believing them to be interchangeable, when they have very different meanings (e.g., tone – author’s attitude toward his subject; mood – atmosphere writer creates for reader).
  • Some believe that diction occurs in oral expression only, when in fact diction is the author’s expression or command of language in writing as well.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Allegorya story that has both a literal meaning and symbolic meaning. In an allegory, characters or objects often embody abstract ideas (e.g., John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress or George Orwell’s Animal Farm)
  • Symbolismthe use of symbols to represent abstract ideas in concrete ways (e.g., The United States flag stands for freedom.)
  • Allusiona reference within a literary work to another work of literature, art, or real event. The reference is often brief and implied.
  • Syntax the arrangement and sequence of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases
  • Diction choice of words in speaking or writing for clear and effective expression
  • Connotative meaning/connotation – the emotions or set of associations attached to a word that is implied rather than literal (e.g., feeling blue)
  • Denotative meaning/denotation – the dictionary definition of a word; the literal or cognitive meaning
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1A, E2.1B, E2.1C, E2.1D, E2.1E

Observation Data

 

Teacher-Student Conference

 

Checklist

 

Rubric

 

Writer’s Notebook

 

Vocabulary Notebook

 

Response Journal

 

Vocabulary Notebook

 

Oral Quiz

 

Written Quiz

 

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Theme and Genre: E2.2A, E2.2B, E2.2C
Fiction: E2.5A, E2.5B, E2.5C, E2.5D
Literary Nonfiction: E2.6A
Sensory Language: E2.7A
Media Literacy: E2.12A, E2.12D
Expository and Procedural Texts: E2.15C.i, E2.15C.ii, E2.15C.iii
Teamwork: E2.26A
Comprehension Skills: E2.Fig19A, E2.Fig19B

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E2.13A, E2.13B, E2.13C, E2.13D, E2.13E
Literary Texts: E2.14A, E2.15C.i, E2.15C.ii, E2.15C.iii
Conventions: E2.17A.i, E2.17A.ii, E2.17C
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E2.18A, E2.18B.i, E2.18B.ii
Spelling: E2.19A
Teamwork: E2.26A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E2.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E2.1A Determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.
Supporting Standard

Determine

THE MEANING OF GRADE-LEVEL TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER LINGUISTIC ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words  

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E2.1B Analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

TEXTUAL CONTEXT

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To distinguish

BETWEEN DENOTATIVE AND CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS OF WORDS

Denotative Meaning – the dictionary definition of a word; the literal or cognitive meaning

Connotative Meaning – the emotions or set of associations attached to a word that is implied rather than literal (e.g., feeling blue)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Based on the textual context, use clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a selected word
  • Distinguish its meaning as either denotative or connotative, using a dictionary as necessary

STAAR Note:
Students have access to dictionaries during the STAAR exam. Dictionaries can assist students in determining word meaning. Refer to E2.1E for the standard addressing dictionary skills. However, students should consider the dictionary definitions in conjunction with contextual meaning.

E2.1C Infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships.
Supporting Standard

Infer

WORD MEANING THROUGH THE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF ANALOGIES AND OTHER WORD RELATIONSHIPS

Inference – connecting bits of information to make a logical guess. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. A subtle inference is one in which the bits of information are not as easily connected.

Analogy – a vocabulary exercise in which an association between a concept and its attribute is present (e.g., hot:cold as north:_____)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify an analogy
  • Determine the word relationship (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, part to whole, whole to part, function, description, homographs, homophones)
  • Infer the meaning by examining the relationship
E2.1D Show the relationship between the origins and meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English and historical events or developments (e.g., glasnost, avant-garde, coup d'état).
Supporting Standard

Show

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORIGINS AND MEANING OF FOREIGN WORDS OR PHRASES USED FREQUENTLY IN WRITTEN ENGLISH AND HISTORICAL EVENTS OR DEVELOPMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use resources to identify word origins to aid in understanding word meanings
  • Determine and explain the relationship between the origin and the meaning of a selected foreign word or phrase

Possible example of relationship between origin and meaning:

  • Glasnost – the word originated in Russia, meaning a Soviet policy calling for an increase in open discussion; therefore, glasnost can refer to openness, transparency, and freedom of speech

Possible examples of foreign words:

  • Glasnost
  • Caveat
  • Avant-garde
  • Coup d’état
E2.1E Use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.
Readiness Standard

Use

A DICTIONARY, A GLOSSARY, OR A THESAURUS (PRINTED OR ELECTRONIC)

To determine or confirm

THE MEANINGS OF WORDS AND PHRASES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Connotative meaning/connotation – the emotions or set of associations attached to a word that is implied rather than literal (e.g., feeling blue)
  • Denotative meaning/denotation – the dictionary definition of a word; the literal or cognitive meaning
  • Etymology – the origin and history of a word; the study of word derivation
E2.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
E2.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e. g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E2.Fig19B Make complex inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
Readiness Standard (Fiction, Expository)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama, Persuasive)

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

STAAR Note:
Paired passage questions associated with (TEKS number) assess similarities and differences in topic, overarching ideas, details, theme, mood, tone, organization, and purpose within or across texts of various genres (e.g., expository-expository, expository-fiction, poem-expository, persuasive-poem). Making connections may require inferential thinking.

E2.2 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THEME IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the theme in various literary genres (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT GENRE IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish characteristics of various genres     

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports the theme in various literary genres

 

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.C - English/Language Arts/Reading. Describe, analyze, and evaluate information within and across literary and other texts from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
E2.2A Compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed in different time periods.
Supporting Standard

Compare, Contrast

DIFFERENCES IN SIMILAR THEMES EXPRESSED IN DIFFERENT TIME PERIODS

Theme – the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. Themes are ideas or concepts that relate to morals and values and speak to the human experience.

Possible examples of themes:

  • Social influences determine a person’s destiny.
  • Good friends are important.
  • People go through trials before they mature.
E2.2B Analyze archetypes (e.g., journey of a hero, tragic flaw) in mythic, traditional and classical literature.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

ARCHETYPES IN MYTHIC, TRADITIONAL, AND CLASSICAL LITERATURE

Archetype – a model image, personage, or theme that recurs in stories and myths throughout history and literature (e.g., mother figure)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the archetype (e.g., journey of a hero, tragic flaw)
  • Identify the character traits that are specific to the identified archetype
  • Explain the character and his/her relationship to the archetype

Journey of a hero – an example of an archetype commonly seen in mythology in which an adventure is presented to a would-be hero. During this adventure, the hero encounters challenges that must be overcome. Once these are overcome, the hero returns to share the benefits of his or her learning.

E2.2C Relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.
Supporting Standard

Relate

THE FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE OF A LITERARY WORK TO ITS HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL SETTING

Figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices

Including, but not limited to:

  • Explain how the figurative language is indicative of the cultural and historical setting of the literary work
E2.5 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF FICTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole story
  • Make inferences related to a part of the story
  • Make inferences related to structure of fiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to particular elements of fiction
    • Character – actions, thoughts, motivations, and qualities/traits
    • Point of view
    • Setting
    • Plot
  • Make inferences related to literary techniques (refer to Sensory Language Expectations for specific grade appropriate examples)

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in fiction

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E2.5A Analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole in a variety of works of fiction.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

ISOLATED SCENES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE SUCCESS OF THE PLOT AS A WHOLE IN A VARIETY OF WORKS OF FICTION

Plot – the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three main parts: rising action, climax, and falling. action

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify isolated scenes
  • Explain how the selected, isolated scene contributed to the plot (e.g., how the author built suspense, introduced the story problem and cause of conflict, etc.) as a whole

NOTE:
Students should also be able to identify how character thoughts and actions contribute to plot development.

E2.5B Analyze differences in the characters' moral dilemmas in works of fiction across different countries or cultures.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

DIFFERENCES IN THE CHARACTERS’ MORAL DILEMMAS IN WORKS OF FICTION ACROSS COUNTRIES AND CULTURES

Moral dilemma/quandary – a state of perplexity or uncertainty, especially as to what to do (right and wrong)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the moral dilemmas of characters in the selected works of fiction
  • Consider the geographical and cultural backgrounds of the characters
  • Compare and contrast the moral dilemmas faced by the characters and how the characters may have been influenced by differences in country and culture

Note:
Students can identify characterization often through analysis if traits, actions, and thoughts.

E2.5C Evaluate the connection between forms of narration (e.g., unreliable, omniscient) and tone in works of fiction.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

THE CONNECTION BETWEEN FORMS OF NARRATION AND TONE IN WORKS OF FICTION

Point of view – the perspective from which the events in the story are told. The author may choose any of the following:

  • Third-person omniscient the narrator tells the story in third person from an all-knowing perspective. The knowledge is not limited by any one character’s view or behavior, as the narrator knows everything about all characters.
  • Third-person limited the narrator restricts his knowledge to one character’s view or behavior
  • Objective – the narrator reveals only the actions and words without the benefit of the inner thoughts and feelings
  • First person/subjective – the narrator restricts the perspective to that of only one character to tell the story
  • Limited - the story is told through the point of view of a single character and is limited to what he or she sees, hears, feels, or is told

Tone – the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify the form of narration (e.g., unreliable, omniscient)
  • Identify the tone of the narration
  • Determine the connection between the form of narration and the tone
  • Describe the impact of the connection
E2.5D Demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on 20th century world literature.

Demonstrate

FAMILIARITY WITH WORKS BY AUTHORS FROM NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING LITERARY TRADITIONS WITH EMPHASIS ON 20TH CENTRUY WORLD LITERATURE

E2.6 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw Conclusions

ABOUT THE VARIED STRUCTURAL PATTERNS AND FEATURES OF LITERARY NONFICTION

  • Make inferences related to the whole literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to a part of the literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to the structure of literary nonfiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to features (elements) of literary nonfiction (e.g., characterization, point of view, setting, events)
  • Make inferences related to specific details in literary nonfiction text including author's purpose

Respond by providing

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in literary nonfiction texts

 

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
TxCCRS Evaluate the use of both literal and figurative language to inform and shape the perceptions of readers.
TxCCRS Identify and analyze how an author's use of language appeals to the senses, creates imagery, and suggests mood.
E2.6A

Evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction.


Supporting Standard

Evaluate

  • THE ROLE OF SYNTAX AND DICTION
  • THE EFFECT OF VOICE, TONE, AND IMAGERY

ON A SPEECH, LITERARY ESSAY, OR OTHER FORMS OF LITERARY NONFICTION

Syntax – the arrangement and sequence of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases

Diction – choice of words in speaking or writing for clear and effective expression

Voice – articulation or expression in coherent form, either verbally or in a piece of writing

Tone – the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing

Imagery – the use of language to create mental images and sensory impressions. Imagery can be used for emotional effect and to intensify the impact on the reader. The following is an example of imagery from Romeo and Juliet: Her eyes in heaven/ Would through the airy region stream so bright/ That birds would sing and think it were not night (2.2.20–22).

Literary essay – an essay that relates an actual experience, event, or perspective on a topic using the techniques and elements of literary writing

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify the purpose of syntax and diction and determine their effect on meaning
  • Identify the purpose of voice, tone, and imagery and determine their effect on meaning
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of syntax, diction, voice, tone, and imagery in the text

Possible examples of other forms of literary nonfiction:

  • Diaries, journals, memoirs, autobiographies, biographies
E2.7 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

HOW AN AUTHOR’S SENSORY LANGUAGE CREATES IMAGERY IN LITERARY TEXT AND PROVIDE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to sensory language
  • Make inferences related to figurative language (e.g., metaphor, simile, personification)
  • Draw conclusions about how sensory language creates imagery and symbolism

Sensory language – words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory language is language that appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

Figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices

Literary device – a specific convention or structure—such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing—that is employed by the author to produce a given effect.  Literary devices are important aspects of an author’s style.

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

E2.7A Explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in literary works.
Supporting Standard

Explain

THE FUNCTION OF SYMBOLISM, ALLEGORY, AND ALLUSION IN LITERARY WORKS

Symbolism – the use of symbols to represent abstract ideas in concrete ways (e.g., The United States flag stands for freedom.)

Allegory – a story that has both a literal meaning and symbolic meaning. In an allegory, characters or objects often embody abstract ideas (e.g., John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress or George Orwell’s Animal Farm)

Allusion – a reference within a literary work to another work of literature, art, or real event. The reference is often brief and implied.

E2.12 Reading/Media Literacy.

Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

Use

COMPREHENSION SKILLS

Analyze

HOW WORDS, IMAGES, GRAPHICS, AND SOUNDS WORK TOGETHER IN VARIOUS FORMS TO IMPACT MEANING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret words, images, and sounds in media and consider their effect on meaning
  • Determine the purpose of embedded media
  • Determine how details within embedded media supports information in the text

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

During instruction, integrate media with other unit standards (e.g., literary text, writing) rather than teaching it in isolation.

TxCCRS Listening
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Reasoning
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Technology
E2.12A Evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

HOW MESSAGES PRESENTED IN MEDIA REFLECT SOCIAL AND CULTURAL VIEWS IN WAYS DIFFERENT FROM TRADITIONAL TEXTS

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • Identify the message(s) presented in media and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Identify the message(s) presented in a traditional text and the social and cultural views reflected
  • Examine and then explain the differences in how the identified messages and social and cultural views are presented in media versus traditional texts

Possible forms of media include:

  • Advertisement – print and electronic (e.g., flyers, brochures, posters, signs)
  • Newspaper
  • Magazine
  • Radio program (songs, lyrical music)
  • Web page – online information
  • Televised news
  • Documentary
  • Photograph (with or without caption)
E2.12D Evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CHANGES IN FORMALITY AND TONE WITHIN THE SAME MEDIUM FOR SPECIFIC AUDIENCES AND PURPOSES

Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages

Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet or source (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in evaluation

  • View media presentations on the same subject, but for different audiences (e.g., the same news story relayed on multiple television networks)
  • Identify formality and tone in each presentation
  • Examine and then explain how the formality and tone change for specific audiences and purposes
E2.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E2.13A Plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea.

Plan

A FIRST DRAFT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews, etc.)
  • Select a focused topic
  • Determine the purpose or intended meaning of the topic
  • Select a correct genre for the purpose and multiple audiences
  • Generate and categorize ideas and details about the selected topic (e.g., webbing, graphic organizer, listing, etc.)

Purpose – the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Genre – the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Examples of purposes for writing:

  • To entertain
  • To explain
  • To describe
  • To inform
  • To persuade
  • To respond

Develop

A THESIS OR CONTROLLING IDEA

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Controlling idea – the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.

Note:
This is the first step in the writing process, often referred to as prewriting or planning.

E2.13B

Structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning.


Readiness Standard

Structure

IDEAS IN A SUSTAINED AND PERSUASIVE WAY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, and/or lists as applicable
  • Select a form or structure appropriate to the genre, purpose and audience

Develop

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In timed and open-ended situations
  • Develop a draft using a selected organizational pattern appropriate to the genre, audience and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the thesis or controlling idea of the piece
  • Develop a coherent draft that is focused and well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Include rhetorical devices as appropriate to convey meaning

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process. This SE combines prewriting (making a plan) and writing a draft (putting thoughts onto paper). The focus is on content, not mechanics.

E2.13C Revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed.
Readiness Standard

After rethinking

HOW WELL QUESTIONS OF PURPOSE, AUDIENCE, AND GENRE HAVE BEEN ADDRESSED

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Genre – the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To improve style – the way something is written, in contrast to its content
  • To improve word choice – the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader
  • To improve the use of figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices
  • To improve sentence variety – purposeful use of simple, compound, complex and compound complex sentences (refer to E2.17C)
  • To improve subtlety of meaning – fine distinctions of meanin

Revisions may include, but are not limited to:

  • Revise entire sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Run-on sentences and comma splices
    • Fragments
    • Order of words and phrases (e.g. misplaced prepositional phrases)
    • Repetition
    • Transition sentence
  • Revise/change/replace single words and phrases including, but not limited to:
    • General vs. specific
    • Formal vs. informal 
    • Synonyms vs. antonyms
    • Transitional words and phrases
    • Pronoun specificity (antecedent)
    • Appropriate vs. inappropriate
    • Create parallel structure
  • Add/insert sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Relevant details in appropriate places
  • Add/insert single words and/or phrases including, but not limited to:
    • Transitions
  • Add/insert sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Relevant details in appropriate places
  • Delete unnecessary sentences/details
  • Combine sentences into a single sentence while maintaining meaning and clarity

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

E2.13D Edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling.
Readiness Standard

Edit

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conventions/Grammar (refer to E2.17Ai-iiiBC)
  • Capitalization and Punctuation (refer to E2.18ABi-iii)
  • Spelling (refer to E2.19A)
  • Previously taught expectations in grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

Note:
This is the fourth step in the writing process. The focus is on grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

STAAR Note:
Questions related to editing may include the following written conventions in the correct answer and/or the distractors:

  • Pronoun use and consistency with antecedents (e.g. it vs. them, I vs.me)
  • Plural vs. possessive (apostrophe use)
  • Subject/verb agreement
  • Consistent verb tense
  • Double negatives
  • Superlative use
  • Part of speech (e.g., intentional vs. intentionally)
  • Comma usage (e.g., in a series, compound sentences, subordinate clauses/phrase, non-restrictive clause etc.)
  • Improperly punctuated sentences (e.g., comma splices, fragments)
  • Capitalization of proper nouns
  • Common spelling errors (e.g. then/than, its/it’s, there/their, a lot/a lot, ei vs. ie, loose/lose)
  • Conjunction use
  • Spelling rules associated with suffixes (e.g., -ing, -s, -es, -ed)
  • Commonly misused terms (e.g., good/well)
  • Article use (e.g., a vs. an)
  • Punctuation in quotations including ending punctuation, commas, and quotation marks
E2.13E Revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

Revise

FINAL DRAFT IN RESPONSE TO FEEDBACK FROM PEERS AND TEACHER

  • Refer to E2.13C for revision expectations

Publish

WRITTEN WORK FOR APPROPRIATE AUDIENCES

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use legible handwriting with appropriate spacing and/or use available technology to publish written work
  • Share published work with an appropriate audience

Note:
This is the last step in the writing process.

E2.14 Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E2.14A Write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone.

Write

AN ENGAGING STORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • With a well-developed conflict and resolution
  • Interesting and believable characters
  • A range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the plot
  • Sensory details that define the mood or tone

Literary strategies and devices include, but are not limited to:

  • Dialogue – the lines spoken between characters in fiction or a play
  • Suspense – the sustained interest created by the buildup of events and delayed resolution of the plot’s conflict

Plot – the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three parts: rising action, climax, and falling action

Conflict – in literature, the opposition of persons or forces that brings about dramatic action central to the plot of a story. Conflict may be internal, as a psychological conflict within a character, or external (e.g., man versus man, man versus nature, or man versus society).

Resolution – the point in a literary work at which the story’s problem is worked out

Sensory detail – a detail in writing that describes what is seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched

Mood – the atmosphere or feeling created by the writer in a literary work or passage. Mood can be expressed through imagery, word choice, setting, voice, and theme. For example, the mood evoked in Edgar Allan Poe’s work is gloomy and dark.

Tonethe author’s particular attitude toward his/her subject, either stated or implied in the writing

E2.15 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E2.15C

Write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

Write

AN INTERPRETIVE RESPONSE TO AN EXPOSITORY OR LITERARY TEXT

Interpretative response – an analysis of a piece of literature in which the writer takes apart what was written by another author and explains it

Possible examples of written interpretive responses:

  • Essay
  • Review
E2.15C.i extends beyond a summary and literal analysis
E2.15C.ii

addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations

Embedded quotation – direct quotations incorporated smoothly into the text of a composition (e.g., Susa [2006] describes sarcasm as “language of the weak and fearful” [p. 26])

Note:
Refer to E2.15A-vi.

E2.15C.iii analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic and rhetorical devices

Aesthetic effect – the use of language as an artistic medium to create imagery that evokes sensory perception. Texts in which language can be used aesthetically include fiction, drama, films, and poetry.

Stylistic device – a technique used by an author to express meaning, ideas, or feelings in a written work (e.g., metaphor, simile, alliteration, etc.). The use of these techniques is related to the tone of the piece and the style of the author.

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Possible examples of rhetorical devices:

  • Overstatement
  • Understatement
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Hyperbole
  • Analogies
  • Irony
  • Figurative language
E2.17 Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E2.17A Use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:
Readiness Standard

Use, Understand

THE FUNCTION OF THE FOLLOWING PARTS OF SPEECH IN THE CONTEXT OF READING, WRITING, AND SPEAKING:

STAAR Note:
Questions related to parts of speech may include the following:

  • Subject/verb agreement
  • Consistent verb tense 
E2.17A.i more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles)
Supporting Standard

Active verb tense – a verb is active if the subject of the sentence is doing the action (e.g., Birds flew out of the nest.)  

Passive verb tense – a verb is passive if the subject of the sentence is not doing the action (e.g., The nest was made by birds.) 

Verbal – a phrase using verbs as nonverbs; there are three types of verbals:

  • Gerund – a word derived from a verb ending in -ing that is used as a noun (e.g., reading is fun)
  • Infinitive – the uninflected or base form of the verb, usually preceded by to (e.g., to go)
  • Participle – a verb form incorporating the use of -ed or -ing for regular verbs and using the third principal part of the verb for irregular verbs. These verb forms are used to form the progressive tenses (e.g., speaking in Jim was speaking) or to serve as modifiers (e.g., writing in the writing assignment).

Present participle – verbs ending in -ing (e.g., The crying baby was hungry.)

Past Participle – regular or irregular verbs written in past tense form (e.g., a chained prisoner, a written letter, a sunken ship)

E2.17A.ii restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses
Supporting Standard

Restrictive relative clause – a phrase or clause that limits the essential meaning of the noun or noun phrase it modifies (e.g., who had a camera in the man who had a camera took our picture)

Nonrestrictive relative clause – a phrase or clause that adds descriptive detail to a noun without limiting its meaning (e.g., who likes ice cream in the sentence Claire, who likes ice cream, is from Ohio). In English, a nonrestrictive clause is usually set off by commas.

E2.17C Use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).
Readiness Standard

Use

A VARIETY OF CORRECTLY STRUCTURED SENTENCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Compound sentence – a sentence composed of at least two independent clauses linked with a conjunction or semicolon (e.g., Sam talked, and Emma listened.)
  • Complex sentence – a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (e.g., I cleaned the room when the guests left.)
  • Compound-complex sentence – a compound sentence with at least one dependent clause (e.g., Dogs bark and birds sing when they are happy.)

STAAR Note:
Questions that address a variety of sentence structure may include the following types of distractors:

  • Run-on
  • Fragment
  • Comma splice
  • Misplaced modifier
E2.18 Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E2.18A Use conventions of capitalization.
Readiness Standard

Use

CONVENTIONS OF CAPITALIZATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Proper and common nouns
  • Quotations
  • Other previously learned standards for capitalization
E2.18B Use correct punctuation marks including:
Readiness Standard

Use

CORRECT PUNCTUATION MARKS, INCLUDING:

STAAR Note:
Questions related to punctuation may include

  • Semicolons
  • Apostrophes in possessives
  • Quotation marks
  • Commas (e.g., in quotations, after introductory phrases, in compound sentences, etc.) 
E2.18B.i comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions
Supporting Standard

Nonrestrictive relative clause – a phrase or clause that adds descriptive detail to a noun without limiting its meaning (e.g., who likes ice cream in the sentence Claire, who likes ice cream, is from Ohio). In English, a nonrestrictive clause is usually set off by commas.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Set off words, phrases, and clauses that would otherwise be unclear
E2.18B.ii quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony
Supporting Standard
E2.19 Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
E2.19A Spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.
Readiness Standard

Spell

CORRECTLY USING VARIOUS RESOURCES TO DETERMINE AND CHECK CORRECT SPELLINGS

Possible examples of resources:

  • Printed or electronic dictionary
  • Printed or electronic thesaurus
E2.26 Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Speaking
TxCCRS E/LAS.III.A - English/Language Arts/Speaking. Understand the elements of communication both in informal group discussions and formal presentations (e.g., accuracy, relevance, rhetorical features, and organization of information).
TxCCRS Listening
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Work habits
E2.26A Participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

Participate

PRODUCTIVELY IN TEAMS

Building on

THE IDEAS OF OTHERS

Contributing

RELEVANT INFORMATION

Developing

A PLAN FOR CONSENSUS–BUILDING

Setting

GROUND RULES FOR DECISION-MAKING

The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 02/10/2017
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