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Instructional Focus Document
English II
TITLE : Unit 02A: Analyzing Poetic Structure SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address word study, reading, and writing to support the analysis and creation of poetry using structure, poetic forms and literary techniques specific to the genre. Various forms of poetry representing a range of diverse cultures and backgrounds provide the avenue for the use and practice of making inferences, summarizing, synthesizing, and providing textual evidence during reading. Students examine literature to make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres. An emphasis on the integration of listening, reading, and writing skills allow the continued development of processes while providing a foundation for college and career readiness.

In English I, students analyzed the effects of literary techniques in poetry such as diction and imagery. They wrote poems including ballads and sonnets using structural elements and figurative language. During this unit, students identify and analyze the purpose of structure in prosody (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme) and graphic element structures (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position) used in poetry and explain the effects of literary techniques studied in Unit 01. Using writing for the comparison of themes across fictional literature and poetry fosters reading and writing connections and allows for development of more complex reading interpretation strategies. Word study is inclusive of genre and literary vocabulary, appropriate academic vocabulary, and vocabulary from the literature. The emphasis of writing conventions and word meaning provide a foundation for continual reflection on communicative accuracy and clarity. In English III, students explore American poetry by analyzing the effects of metrics and rhyme schemes.


Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Authors use a repertoire of strategies that enable them to vary form, style, and structure in order to write for different purposes, audiences, and contexts.

Forms – Genre, Poetry

Structure – Graphic Elements

Element – Theme

Structure – Prosody, Graphic Elements

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Readers infer meaning about a variety of texts using textual evidence to support ideas.

Interpretations – Connections, Understanding

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Understanding new words, concepts, and relationships enhances comprehension and oral and written communication.

Interpretation – Relationships, Knowledge, Vocabulary

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

MISCONCEPTIONS:

  • Some students believe that each line in poetry represents a complete thought, when, in fact, a complete thought may consist of more than one line.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Symbolismthe use of symbols to represent abstract ideas in concrete ways (e.g., The United States flag stands for freedom.)
  • Allusiona reference within a literary work to another work of literature, art, or real event. The reference is often brief and implied.
  • Allegory – a story that has both a literal meaning and symbolic meaning. In an allegory, characters or objects often embody abstract ideas (e.g., John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress or George Orwell’s Animal Farm)
  • Prosodythe vocal intonation and meter of spoken language. When reading with prosody, readers sound as if they are speaking the part they are reading.
  • Meter – the basic rhythmic structure in verse, composed of stressed and unstressed syllables
  • Rhyme scheme – the pattern of rhyming lines (e.g. ABAB, ABBA)
  • Graphic elements of poetry – capital letters, line length, and word position; also called the "shape" of a poem
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

  • None identified

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1A, E2.1B, E2.1C, E2.1D
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1E

Observation Data

 

Teacher-Student Conference

 

Checklist

 

Rubric

 

Writer’s Notebook

 

Vocabulary Notebook

 

Reader’s Notebook

 

Oral Quiz

 

Written Quiz

 

Portfolio

Reading

TEKS
Theme and Genre: E2.2A, E2.2C
Poetry: E2.3A
Sensory Language: E2.7A
Expository and Procedural Texts: E2.15C.i, E2.15C.ii, E2.15C.iii
Comprehension Skills: E2.Fig19A, E2.Fig19B
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1E
Fiction: E2.5D
Teamwork: E2.26A

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: E2.13A, E2.13B, E2.13C, E2.13D
Literary Texts: E2.14B
Expository and Procedural Texts: E2.15C.i, E2.15C.ii, E2.15C.iii
Ongoing TEKS
Vocabulary Development: E2.1E
Writing Process: E2.13E
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: E2.18A, E2.18B.i, E2.18B.ii
Spelling: E2.19A
Teamwork: E2.26A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Definitions from Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency / University of Texas System are in bolded, blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA) is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
E2.1 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
E2.1A Determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.
Supporting Standard

Determine

THE MEANING OF GRADE-LEVEL TECHNICAL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS IN MULTIPLE CONTENT AREAS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER LINGUISTIC ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Select words from class texts and/or collaborate with other content area teachers to determine words.

Including, but not limited to affixes and roots found in content area text:

  • Mathematics
  • Social Studies
  • Science
  • Arts

Academic English words  

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

E2.1B Analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

TEXTUAL CONTEXT

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To distinguish

BETWEEN DENOTATIVE AND CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS OF WORDS

Denotative Meaning – the dictionary definition of a word; the literal or cognitive meaning

Connotative Meaning – the emotions or set of associations attached to a word that is implied rather than literal (e.g., feeling blue)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Based on the textual context, use clues within the sentence or larger section of text to determine the meaning of a selected word
  • Distinguish its meaning as either denotative or connotative, using a dictionary as necessary

STAAR Note:
Students have access to dictionaries during the STAAR exam. Dictionaries can assist students in determining word meaning. Refer to E2.1E for the standard addressing dictionary skills. However, students should consider the dictionary definitions in conjunction with contextual meaning.

E2.1C Infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships.
Supporting Standard

Infer

WORD MEANING THROUGH THE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF ANALOGIES AND OTHER WORD RELATIONSHIPS

Inference – connecting bits of information to make a logical guess. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions. A subtle inference is one in which the bits of information are not as easily connected.

Analogy – a vocabulary exercise in which an association between a concept and its attribute is present (e.g., hot:cold as north:_____)

Including, but not limited to:
Steps in analysis

  • Identify an analogy
  • Determine the word relationship (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, part to whole, whole to part, function, description, homographs, homophones)
  • Infer the meaning by examining the relationship
E2.1D Show the relationship between the origins and meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English and historical events or developments (e.g., glasnost, avant-garde, coup d'état).
Supporting Standard

Show

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORIGINS AND MEANING OF FOREIGN WORDS OR PHRASES USED FREQUENTLY IN WRITTEN ENGLISH AND HISTORICAL EVENTS OR DEVELOPMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use resources to identify word origins to aid in understanding word meanings
  • Determine and explain the relationship between the origin and the meaning of a selected foreign word or phrase

Possible example of relationship between origin and meaning:

  • Glasnost – the word originated in Russia, meaning a Soviet policy calling for an increase in open discussion; therefore, glasnost can refer to openness, transparency, and freedom of speech

Possible examples of foreign words:

  • Glasnost
  • Caveat
  • Avant-garde
  • Coup d’état
E2.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
E2.Fig19A Reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e. g., asking questions, summarizing and synthesizing, making connections, creating sensory images).

Reflect

ON UNDERSTANDING TO MONITOR COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking questions
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Making textual, personal, and world connections
  • Creating sensory images

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Synthesize – combine elements and parts to form a coherent whole 

E2.Fig19B Make complex inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
Readiness Standard (Fiction, Expository)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama, Persuasive)

Make

COMPLEX INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Complex inference – uses inductive and deductive reasoning

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inductive reasoning – the process of determining general principles by logic or observation from specific data; reasoning from parts to whole (e.g., all ice I’ve ever felt is cold; therefore, all ice is cold)
  • Deductive reasoning – the process of logical reasoning from general principles to specific instances based on the assumed truth of the principle; reasoning from wholes to parts

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Generalization – a straight-forward statement about a group/class of persons, places, things, events supported by information

STAAR Note:
Paired passage questions associated with (TEKS number) assess similarities and differences in topic, overarching ideas, details, theme, mood, tone, organization, and purpose within or across texts of various genres (e.g., expository-expository, expository-fiction, poem-expository, persuasive-poem). Making connections may require inferential thinking.

E2.2 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THEME IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine the theme in various literary genres (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT GENRE IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish characteristics of various genres     

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports the theme in various literary genres

 

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.C - English/Language Arts/Reading. Describe, analyze, and evaluate information within and across literary and other texts from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
E2.2A Compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed in different time periods.
Supporting Standard

Compare, Contrast

DIFFERENCES IN SIMILAR THEMES EXPRESSED IN DIFFERENT TIME PERIODS

Theme – the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. Themes are ideas or concepts that relate to morals and values and speak to the human experience.

Possible examples of themes:

  • Social influences determine a person’s destiny.
  • Good friends are important.
  • People go through trials before they mature.
E2.2C Relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.
Supporting Standard

Relate

THE FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE OF A LITERARY WORK TO ITS HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL SETTING

Figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices

Including, but not limited to:

  • Explain how the figurative language is indicative of the cultural and historical setting of the literary work
E2.3 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions
ABOUT THE STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF POETRY
Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to a whole poem
  • Make inferences related to the organization of a poem
  • Make inference related to the point of view of a poem
  • Make inferences related to a section (e.g., specific lines or stanzas) of a poem
  • Make inferences related to particular techniques (e.g., punctuation, dialogue, organization, word choice, figurative language, repetition, comparisons, contrasting elements) in a poem
  • Make inferences related to particular sentence structures (e.g., short sentences)
  • Make inferences related to the speaker and/or character thoughts, feelings, and actions when applicable

Provide
EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING
Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in poetry

STAAR Note:

  • This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.
  • Questions may require students to consider author’s (poet’s) purpose when making inferences.
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
E2.3A Analyze the structure or prosody (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme) and graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position) in poetry.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

THE STRUCTURE OF PROSODY AND GRAPHIC ELEMENTS IN POETRY

Structure of prosody include, but are not limited to:

  • Meter
  • Rhyme scheme

Prosody – the vocal intonation and meter of spoken language. When reading with prosody, readers sound as if they are speaking the part they are reading.

Meter – the basic rhythmic structure in verse, composed of stressed and unstressed syllables

Rhyme scheme – the pattern of rhyming lines (e.g. ABAB, ABBA)

Graphic elements include, but are not limited to:

  • Line length
  • Punctuation (e.g., italics, exclamation)
  • Word position

Including, but not limited to:

Steps in analysis

  • Identify the structures of prosody and graphic elements
  • Explain and analyze the purpose of the structures and prosody

Note:
When analyzing poetry, structure, literary devices, and word choice can reveal tone, an important aspect of any textual analysis.

E2.7 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

HOW AN AUTHOR’S SENSORY LANGUAGE CREATES IMAGERY IN LITERARY TEXT AND PROVIDE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to sensory language
  • Make inferences related to figurative language (e.g., metaphor, simile, personification)
  • Draw conclusions about how sensory language creates imagery and symbolism

Sensory language – words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory language is language that appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

Figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices

Literary device – a specific convention or structure—such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing—that is employed by the author to produce a given effect.  Literary devices are important aspects of an author’s style.

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

STAAR Note: 
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19B.

E2.7A Explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in literary works.
Supporting Standard

Explain

THE FUNCTION OF SYMBOLISM, ALLEGORY, AND ALLUSION IN LITERARY WORKS

Symbolism – the use of symbols to represent abstract ideas in concrete ways (e.g., The United States flag stands for freedom.)

Allegory – a story that has both a literal meaning and symbolic meaning. In an allegory, characters or objects often embody abstract ideas (e.g., John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress or George Orwell’s Animal Farm)

Allusion – a reference within a literary work to another work of literature, art, or real event. The reference is often brief and implied.

E2.13 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E2.13A

Plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea.

Plan

A FIRST DRAFT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews, etc.)
  • Select a focused topic
  • Determine the purpose or intended meaning of the topic
  • Select a correct genre for the purpose and multiple audiences
  • Generate and categorize ideas and details about the selected topic (e.g., webbing, graphic organizer, listing, etc.)

Purpose – the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Genre – the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Examples of purposes for writing:

  • To entertain
  • To explain
  • To describe
  • To inform
  • To persuade
  • To respond

Develop

A THESIS OR CONTROLLING IDEA

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments; the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Controlling idea – the main point or underlying direction of a piece of writing. A controlling idea makes the reader ask a question that will be answered by reading more or helps the reader understand the author’s purpose for writing the paragraph or essay.

Note:
This is the first step in the writing process, often referred to as prewriting or planning.

E2.13B

Structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning.


Readiness Standard

Structure

IDEAS IN A SUSTAINED AND PERSUASIVE WAY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize ideas using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, and/or lists as applicable
  • Select a form or structure appropriate to the genre, purpose and audience

Develop

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In timed and open-ended situations
  • Develop a draft using a selected organizational pattern appropriate to the genre, audience and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the thesis or controlling idea of the piece
  • Develop a coherent draft that is focused and well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Include rhetorical devices as appropriate to convey meaning

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process. This SE combines prewriting (making a plan) and writing a draft (putting thoughts onto paper). The focus is on content, not mechanics.

E2.13C Revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed.
Readiness Standard

After rethinking

HOW WELL QUESTIONS OF PURPOSE, AUDIENCE, AND GENRE HAVE BEEN ADDRESSED

Rhetorical purpose – the author’s primary aim in a piece of writing. The rhetorical purpose could be to narrate, to argue, to review, to explain, or to examine.

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Genre – the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Revise

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • To improve style – the way something is written, in contrast to its content
  • To improve word choice – the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader
  • To improve the use of figurative language – language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices
  • To improve sentence variety – purposeful use of simple, compound, complex and compound complex sentences (refer to E2.17C)
  • To improve subtlety of meaning – fine distinctions of meanin

Revisions may include, but are not limited to:

  • Revise entire sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Run-on sentences and comma splices
    • Fragments
    • Order of words and phrases (e.g. misplaced prepositional phrases)
    • Repetition
    • Transition sentence
  • Revise/change/replace single words and phrases including, but not limited to:
    • General vs. specific
    • Formal vs. informal 
    • Synonyms vs. antonyms
    • Transitional words and phrases
    • Pronoun specificity (antecedent)
    • Appropriate vs. inappropriate
    • Create parallel structure
  • Add/insert sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Relevant details in appropriate places
  • Add/insert single words and/or phrases including, but not limited to:
    • Transitions
  • Add/insert sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Relevant details in appropriate places
  • Delete unnecessary sentences/details
  • Combine sentences into a single sentence while maintaining meaning and clarity

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

E2.13D Edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling.
Readiness Standard

Edit

DRAFTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conventions/Grammar (refer to E2.17Ai-iiiBC)
  • Capitalization and Punctuation (refer to E2.18ABi-iii)
  • Spelling (refer to E2.19A)
  • Previously taught expectations in grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

Note:
This is the fourth step in the writing process. The focus is on grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

STAAR Note:
Questions related to editing may include the following written conventions in the correct answer and/or the distractors:

  • Pronoun use and consistency with antecedents (e.g. it vs. them, I vs.me)
  • Plural vs. possessive (apostrophe use)
  • Subject/verb agreement
  • Consistent verb tense
  • Double negatives
  • Superlative use
  • Part of speech (e.g., intentional vs. intentionally)
  • Comma usage (e.g., in a series, compound sentences, subordinate clauses/phrase, non-restrictive clause etc.)
  • Improperly punctuated sentences (e.g., comma splices, fragments)
  • Capitalization of proper nouns
  • Common spelling errors (e.g. then/than, its/it’s, there/their, a lot/a lot, ei vs. ie, loose/lose)
  • Conjunction use
  • Spelling rules associated with suffixes (e.g., -ing, -s, -es, -ed)
  • Commonly misused terms (e.g., good/well)
  • Article use (e.g., a vs. an)
  • Punctuation in quotations including ending punctuation, commas, and quotation marks
E2.14 Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E2.14B Write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads).

Write

A POEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language)
  • Using a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads)

Possible examples of structural elements:

  • Rhyme scheme – the pattern of rhyming lines (e.g., ABAB, ABBA)
  • Meter – the basic rhythmic structure in verse, composed of stressed and unstressed syllables. The most common meter in English verse is iambic pentameter.

Possible examples of figurative language:

  • Simile – a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)
  • Metaphor – a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.)
  • Hyperbole – an intentional and extreme exaggeration for emphasis or effect (e.g., This book weighs a ton.)
  • Personification – figurative language in which non-human things or abstractions are represented as having human qualities (e.g., Necessity is the mother of invention.)
E2.15 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
E2.15C

Write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

Write

AN INTERPRETIVE RESPONSE TO LITERARY TEXT

Interpretative response – an analysis of a piece of literature in which the writer takes apart what was written by another author and explains it

Possible examples of written interpretive responses:

  • Essay
  • Review
E2.15C.i extends beyond a summary and literal analysis
E2.15C.ii

addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations

Embedded quotation – direct quotations incorporated smoothly into the text of a composition (e.g., Susa [2006] describes sarcasm as “language of the weak and fearful” [p. 26])

Note:
Refer to E2.15A-vi.

E2.15C.iii analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic and rhetorical devices

Aesthetic effect – the use of language as an artistic medium to create imagery that evokes sensory perception. Texts in which language can be used aesthetically include fiction, drama, films, and poetry.

Stylistic device – a technique used by an author to express meaning, ideas, or feelings in a written work (e.g., metaphor, simile, alliteration, etc.). The use of these techniques is related to the tone of the piece and the style of the author.

Rhetorical device – a technique that an author or speaker uses to influence or persuade an audience

Possible examples of rhetorical devices:

  • Overstatement
  • Understatement
  • Rhetorical questions
  • Hyperbole
  • Analogies
  • Irony
  • Figurative language
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 02/10/2017
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