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Instructional Focus Document
Environmental Systems
TITLE : Unit 04: Population Dynamics SUGGESTED DURATION : 25 days

Unit Overview

During this Unit

This unit bundles student expectations addressing population dynamics. Students investigate factors impacting populations and analyze and make predictions about the impact on populations of geographic locales due to diseases, birth and death rates, urbanization, and natural events such as migration and seasonal changes. Students also analyze and predict the effects of non-renewable resource depletion. Students research and explain the causes of species diversity and predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if species and genetic diversity is increased or reduced. Additionally, students relate carrying capacity to population dynamics and calculate birth rates and exponential growth of populations. Students also predict how the introduction or removal of an invasive species may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem, and they predict how species extinction may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem. Students continue to practice safety and utilize the science notebook to record, organize and communicate information.

 

Prior Content Connections

  • Grade 7
    • 7.10B – Describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem.
    • 7.10C – Observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.
  • Grade 8
    • 8.11A – Describe producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships as they occur in food webs within marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems.
    • 8.11B – Investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic factors such as quantity of light, water, range of temperatures, or soil composition.
    • 8.11C – Explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations.
    • 8.11D – Recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems.
  • Biology
    • B.7D – Analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive success.
    • B.11B – Investigate and analyze how organisms, populations, and communities respond to external factors.
    • B.11D – Describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity.
    • B.12C – Analyze the flow of matter and energy through trophic levels using various models, including food chains, food webs, and ecological pyramids.
    • B.12D – Recognize that long-term survival of species is dependent on changing resource bases that are limited.
    • B.12F – Describe how environmental change can impact ecosystem stability.

 

After this Unit

Students will examine how natural events and human activities impact the environment.

 

According to Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • the variation of organisms within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of the species will survive under changed environmental conditions.
  • a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large changes in the environment.
  • the growing worldwide interdependence of social, economic, and ecological systems means that changes in one place in the world may have effects in any other place.”


American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online.


Earth’s environmental system is a network of relationships among components and systems that interact with and influence one another.

  • What is an environment?
  • How are environmental systems affected by change(s)?
  • How do living and non-living components interact within environmental systems?
  • In what ways is an understanding of environmental systems an integral part of everyday life?

 

A system is a collection of interactive, interrelated, or interdependent cycles, structures, and / or processes.

  • How are the components and parameters of a system defined?
  • How are the functions of the components in a system related to the cycles, structures, and / or processes of the system?
  • How are systems affected by change(s)?
  • How can one system be considered a component of another system?

 

Physical, mathematical, or conceptual models can be used to describe, investigate, and make predictions about a system in terms of its components and how they relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

  • In what ways are models used to help us interpret systems?
  • To what extent do limitations of models affect their reliability, validity, and usefulness?

 

Patterns of constancy and change in systems can be observed, measured, and / or modeled.

  • Why is it important to observe, measure and / or model patterns of a system?
  • What information do patterns provide about a system(s)?

 

A system can be described by its basic properties and analyzed in terms of interactions.

  • In what ways can a system be described by its properties? 
  • How are interactions within a system analyzed?
  • In what ways do interactions affect the basic properties of a system?

 

Scientific processes are used to explore and understand a system.

  • What makes a process scientific?
  • In what ways can a system be scientifically examined?
  • Which scientific processes are most appropriate when studying a system and why?
  • What significant conclusions can be drawn from investigating a system?

 

Scientific decision-making is a way of answering questions about systems within the natural world.

  • Who should be scientifically literate and why?
  • What does it mean to be scientifically literate?
  • How does scientific decision-making affect the quality of our lives?
  • What distinguishes decision-making in science from decision-making in other areas of study?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Populations of different species have deeply connected relationships within an ecosystem. A disruption to one population could have effects on many other populations.

  • In what ways does the introduction or removal of an invasive species affect existing populations in an ecosystem?
  • In what ways does the extinction of one species affect existing populations in an ecosystem?
  • What changes may occur in an ecosystem if species diversity or genetic diversity within a species is changed?

 

There are many factors that affect the relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems.

  • What are the social, ecological, political, and economic factors that affect birth rates, death rates, and fertility rates?
  • What are the effects when a population exceeds carrying capacity?
  • What factors can cause carrying capacity to change?

Systems 

  • Ecosystem / environment
  • Interdependence

 

Patterns

  • Graphs

 

Models

  • Systems

 

Change

  • Survival  
  • Systems

 

Properties

  • Systems

 

Associated Scientific Investigation and Reasoning Processes

  • Demonstrate safety
  • Organize data
  • Communicate data
  • Communicate conclusions and / or make predictions
  • Analyze, interpret, and evaluate
  • Think critically
  • Demonstrate conservation
  • Express, interpret, and / or manipulate relationships
  • Collect data using tools and equipment
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think population growth has occurred at current levels for many centuries, rather than understanding that population growth is variable and has increased dramatically over the globe in the last two centuries.
  • Students may think population growth stimulates economic growth.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:  

  • Carrying capacity – the maximum, equilibrium number of organisms of a particular species that can be supported indefinitely in a given environment
  • Competition – two or more individual organisms of a single species (intraspecific competition) or two or more individuals of different species (interspecific competition) attempting to use the same scarce resources in the same ecosystem
  • Disease – a damaging change in the body's condition in response to destabilizing factors, such as nutrition, chemicals, or biological agents
  • Emigration – the movement of members from a population
  • Exponential growth – growth at a constant rate of increase per unit of time; can be expressed as a constant fraction or exponent
  • Immigration – the action of coming to live permanently in a different (foreign) country
  • Limiting factor – an environmental factor that tends to limit population size
  • Mutualism – a symbiotic relationship between individuals of two different species in which both species benefit from the association
  • Parasitism – a symbiotic relationship where an organism that lives in or on another organism, deriving nourishment at the expense of its host, usually without killing it
  • Population density – a measurement of individuals of a population per unit area or unit volume; frequently applied to living organisms, including humans
  • Population distribution – the arrangement or spread of individuals living in a given area; how the population of an area is arranged according to variables, such as age, race, or gender
  • Predation – act of feeding by a predator
  • Zero population growth – the number of births at which people are just replacing themselves; also called the replacement level of fertility

Related Vocabulary:

  • Apex predator
  • Birth rate
  • Crude birth rate
  • Crude death rate
  • Death rate
  • Demographic transition model
  • Density dependent
  • Density independent
  • Extinction
  • Fertility rate
  • K selected species
  • Keystone species
  • Logistical growth
  • r selected species
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency – Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts hands-on laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
E.1A

Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including appropriate first aid responses to accidents that could occur in the field such as insect stings, animal bites, overheating, sprains, and breaks.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles, aprons, and gloves
  • Know the location and use of safety equipment, such as first aid kits, safety shower, and eye wash
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards, 2nd Edition
  • Handle organisms appropriately
  • Use lab equipment appropriately
  • Follow field investigation guidelines
  • Limit habitat disturbance / destruction
E.1B

Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
    • Reducing pollution
    • Being a wise consumer
    • Use of energy efficient materials or fuels
    • Preserving habitats
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials
    • Disposal
      • Solid and liquid chemical waste
      • Broken glassware
    • Spill cleanup
    • Recycling
      • Paper products
      • Plastics
      • Glass
      • Metals
E.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
E.2A

Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process".

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • “...some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.”
  • Scientific inquiry may be limited by current technology
E.2B

Know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses
  • Analyze data to determine whether the data support or do not support hypotheses
  • Widely tested hypotheses
    • Can have durable explanatory power
    • May be incorporated into theories

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
E.2C

Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Scientific theories are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • Unlike, hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of biology and the evidence that supports them

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
E.2D

Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories
  • Use statements and supporting evidence to determine whether a statement is a hypothesis or a scientific theory
  • Examine examples of hypotheses and theories in the field of environmental systems

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
E.2F

Collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative and / or quantitative
  • On an individual or collaborative basis
  • Record values using appropriate units
  • Demonstrate use of appropriate equipment to collect data

Make 

MEASUREMENTS WITH PRECISION AND ACCURACY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes for pH, water quality, soil quality, etc.
  • Glassware for volume (e.g., graduated cylinders, pipettes, burettes)
  • Electronic balances for mass
  • Meter sticks and rulers for length or distance
  • Stopwatches for time

Calculate

STATISTICALLY RELEVANT QUANTITIES TO DESCRIBE DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mean
  • Median
  • Range
E.2G

Demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including meter sticks, rulers, pipettes, graduated cylinders, triple beam balances, timing devices, pH meters or probes, thermometers, calculators, computers, Internet access, turbidity testing devices, hand magnifiers, work and disposable gloves, compasses, first aid kits, binoculars, field guides, water quality test kits or probes, soil test kits or probes, 100-foot appraiser's tapes, tarps, shovels, trowels, screens, buckets, and rock and mineral samples.

Demonstrate

THE USE OF COURSE APPARATUSES, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Appropriate use of equipment
    • pH meters or probes
    • Thermometers
    • Calculators
    • Computers with Internet access
    • Compasses
    • First aid kits
    • Field guides
    • Water quality test kits or probes
E.2J

Perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation.

Perform

CALCULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific conventions
    • Significant digits
    • Scientific notation
    • Appropriate Standard International (SI) units
  • Mathematical procedures
    • Dimensional analysis
    • Scientific notation
    • Rules for Significant Figures (Digits)
      1. Non-zero digits and zeros between non-zero digits are always significant.
      2. Leading zeros are not significant.
      3. Zeros to the right of all non-zero digits are only significant if a decimal point is shown.
      4. For values written in scientific notation, the digits in the coefficient are significant.
      5. In a common logarithm, there are as many digits after the decimal point as there are significant figures in the original number.

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include the Rules for Significant Figures as listed above.
E.2K

Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports
    • Possible additional methods for communicating conclusions:
      • Graphs

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
E.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
E.3A

In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, IN ALL FIELDS OF SCIENCE, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
E.3B

Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
    • News reports
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools
E.3D

Evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Evaluate the impact of research on society, everyday life, and the environment
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
E.4 Science concepts. The student knows the relationships of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats, ecosystems, and biomes. The student is expected to:
E.4F

Predict how the introduction or removal of an invasive species may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem.

Predict

HOW INTRODUCTION OR REMOVAL OF AN INVASIVE SPECIES MAY ALTER THE FOOD CHAIN AND AFFECT EXISTING POPULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Introduction of invasive species
  • Impacts
    • Economic
      • Commercial
      • Agricultural
      • Recreational
    • Biodiversity
      • Prevent native species from reproducing
      • Out-compete native species for food and other resources
        • Decrease biodiversity
    • Habitat alteration
      • Threat to native wildlife
    • Food chain
      • Destroy or replace native food sources
      • Altering ecosystem conditions (e.g., soil chemistry)
  • Removal of invasive species
  • Impacts
    • Economic
      • Cost of removal
      • Cost of restoration
    • Biodiversity
      • Alteration of organisms in soil
      • Germination, growth, and establishment of native organisms
    • Alteration of food chain / web

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • VI. Biology – G4 – Know the process of succession.
E.4G

Predict how species extinction may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem.

Predict

HOW SPECIES EXTINCTION MAY ALTER THE FOOD CHAIN AND AFFECT EXISTING POPULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Impact on food chain
    • Initial impact on extinct species’ predators and prey
    • Long term impact on food chain stability
    • Magnitude of impact based on species role in an ecosystem
      • Keystone species
      • Apex predator
  • Impact on existing populations
    • Possible endangerment and / or extinction of other organisms
    • Possible population growth of other organisms
E.4H

Research and explain the causes of species diversity and predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if species and genetic diversity is increased or reduced.

Research, Explain

CAUSES OF SPECIES DIVERSITY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Climate
    • Latitudinal gradients
    • Altitudinal gradients
  • Food availability
    • Productivity
  • Disturbances (e.g., glaciation)
  • Biological interactions
    • Predation
    • Competition
    • Mutualism
    • Parasitism
    • Disease

Predict

CHANGES THAT MAY OCCUR IN AN ECOSYSTEM IF SPECIES AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IS INCREASED OR REDUCED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Increases in species and genetic diversity
    • Possible changes that may occur:
      • Evolution through natural selection
      • Ecosystem stability
      • Carrying capacity
  • Decreases in species and genetic diversity
    • Possible changes that may occur:
      • Evolution through natural selection
      • Ecosystem stability
      • Carrying capacity
E.7 Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems. The student is expected to:
E.7A

Relate carrying capacity to population dynamics.

Relate

CARRYING CAPACITY TO POPULATION DYNAMICS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Limiting factors
    • Food
    • Shelter
    • Water
  • Types of population growth
    • Exponential
    • Linear
  • Calculate carrying capacity (K)
  • r selected species
  • K selected species
  • Modeling carrying capacity and population dynamics
  • Effects of exceeding carrying capacity on population

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • VI. Biology – C2 – Recognize variations in population sizes, including extinction, and describe mechanisms and conditions that produce these variations.
E.7B Calculate birth rates and exponential growth of populations.

Calculate

BIRTH RATES AND EXPONENTIAL GROWTH OF POPULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Initial population
  • Fertility rate
  • Growth rate
  • Birth rate
    • Crude birth rate
  • Death rate
    • Crude death rate
  • Mark and recapture

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – C1 – Recognize variations in population sizes, including human population and extinction, and describe mechanisms and conditions that produce these variations. 
E.7C

Analyze and predict the effects of non-renewable resource depletion.

Analyze, Predict

THE EFFECTS OF NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE DEPLETION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Possible effects of depletion of fossil fuels and / or minerals
    • Changes in carrying capacity of organisms
    • Changes in balance of power (e.g., supply and demand)
    • Growth in use of alternative sources of energy
    • Possible lack of sustainable economic development
    • Extinction of some populations
E.7D

Analyze and make predictions about the impact on populations of geographic locales due to diseases, birth and death rates, urbanization, and natural events such as migration and seasonal changes.

Analyze, Predict

IMPACT ON POPULATIONS OF GEOGRAPHIC LOCALES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Population factors
    • Density dependent factors
      • Diseases
        • Possible examples may include:
          • Black plague
          • Ebola
          • Spanish flu
    • Density independent factors
      • Natural events
        • Migration
        • Seasonal changes
      • Birth and death rates
        • Recognition of patterns of change in populations
          • Demographic transition model
      • Urbanization

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • X. Environmental Science – C1 – Recognize variations in population sizes, including human population and extinction, and describe mechanisms and conditions that produce these variations. 
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 09/18/2019
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