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Instructional Focus Document
Environmental Systems
TITLE : Unit 05: Environmental Impact SUGGESTED DURATION : 30 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles Student Expectations that address environmental impact as a result of both natural events and human activities.

 

Prior to this Unit

  • Grade 6
    • 6.10D – Describe how plate tectonics causes major geological events such as ocean basins, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.
  • Grade 7
    • 7.8A – Predict and describe how different types of catastrophic events impact ecosystems such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes.
  • Grade 8
    • 8.9B – Relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features.
    • 8.10B – Identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather using weather maps that show high and low pressures and fronts.
    • 8.10C – Identify the role of the oceans in the formation of weather systems such as hurricanes.
  • Biology
    • B.11B – Investigate and analyze how organisms, populations, and communities respond to external factors.
    • B.11D – Describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity.

 

During this Unit

Students examine how natural processes such as succession and feedback loops restore habitats and ecosystems and analyze and describe the effects on areas impacted by natural events such as tectonic movement, volcanic events, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, flooding, tsunamis, and population growth. They describe how temperature inversions impact weather conditions, including El Niño and La Niña oscillations, and analyze the impact of temperature inversions on global warming, ice cap and glacial melting, and changes in ocean currents and surface temperatures. Additionally, students identify causes of air, soil, and water pollution, including point and nonpoint sources, and investigate the types of air, soil, and water pollution such as chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, pH, pesticide runoff, thermal variations, metallic ions, heavy metals, and nuclear waste. Students examine the concentrations of air, soil, and water pollutants using appropriate units; measure the concentration of solute, solvent, and solubility of dissolved substances such as dissolved oxygen, chlorides, and nitrates; and describe their impact on an ecosystem. Furthermore, students analyze and evaluate different views on the existence of global warming and describe the effect of pollution on global warming, glacial and ice cap melting, greenhouse effect, ozone layer, and aquatic viability. They explain how regional changes in the environment may have a global effect.

 

After this Unit

Students end the course by evaluating major efforts that have contributed to the field of environmental science and engaging in their own investigation of an environmental issue in order to develop a plan for a community awareness campaign. This is a culminating activity to address issues they have studied during the course.

 

Research

“By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • A great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large changes in the environment.
  • If a disturbance such as flood, fire, or the addition or loss of species occurs, the affected ecosystem may return to a system similar to the original one, or it may take a new direction, leading to a very different type of ecosystem. Changes in climate can produce very large changes in ecosystems.
  • The global environment is affected by national and international policies and practices relating to energy use, waste disposal, ecological management, manufacturing, and population.”

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks on-line. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/bsl/online/index.php.


Scientists investigate natural phenomena in order to understand and explain each phenomenon in terms of systems.

  • What is the value of knowing and understanding natural phenomena?
  • How are the properties of systems and their components related to their classification?
  • How are the components, processes, and / or patterns of systems interrelated?

 

Scientific investigation is an orderly process to ensure that scientific claims are credible.

  • Why is credibility so important in the scientific field?
  • How is scientific knowledge generated and validated?

 

Data is systematically collected, organized, and analyzed in terms of patterns and relationships to develop reasonable explanations and make predictions.

  • What gives meaning to data?
  • What is the value of observing patterns and relationships in data?

 

Scientists analyze, evaluate, and critique each other’s work using principles of scientific investigations in order to build on one another’s ideas through new investigations.

  • How can we know what to believe about a scientific claim?
  • In what ways have scientific explanations impacted scientific thought and society over time?
  • What is the value of scientific literacy?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The concentration of dissolved substances in soil, water, and air impact the biodiversity of an ecosystem.

  • In what ways will the concentration of a dissolved substance impact an ecosystem?

 

Natural events can drastically change the landscape and biodiversity in the affected ecosystem and have a global impact.

  • In what ways can natural events affect an ecosystem?
  • What processes can an ecosystem undergo after it has been impacted by a natural event?
  • In what ways have regional changes in an environment had a global impact?

 

Temperature inversions have a global effect on Earth’s weather patterns.

  • In what ways do temperature inversions impact weather and climate?

 

Pollution in its many forms from many sources have a negative effect on the air, soil, and water.

  • What are the causes of pollution?
  • What are the types of pollution?
  • In what ways can the concentration of pollutants be measured?
  • How can the environmental impact of various types of pollution be determined?

Systems 

  • Environmental change

 

Classifications 

  • Natural changes
  • Impact of human activities

 

Properties 

  • Air quality
  • Soil quality
  • Water quality

 

Patterns 

  • Temperature inversions
  • Succession

 

Models 

  • El Niño oscillations
  • La Niña oscillations
  • Succession

 

Constancy 

  • Succession

 

Change 

  • Natural events
  • Pollution
  • Global warming
  • Ice cap melting
  • Glacial melting
  • Ozone layer
  • Aquatic viability
  • Ocean currents
  • Surface temperatures
  • Weather conditions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Students may think environmental changes in one area of the world (e.g., hurricanes, nuclear accidents, deforestation of the Amazon, etc.) have no impact on other areas of the world, rather than understanding the interconnectedness of all components of Earths’ systems (including the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere).

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:

  • Feedback loop – circuit of sensing, evaluating, and reacting to changes in environmental conditions as a result of information fed back into a system; occurs when one change leads to some other change, which eventually reinforces or slows the original change
  • Non-point source pollution – pollution that originates from many unidentified sources: generally resulting from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification (e.g., excess fertilizer, oil, grease, acid drainage, insecticides)
  • Oscillation – motions that have some degree of repetition
  • Point source pollution – any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged
  • Succession – process by which an ecological community undergoes more or less orderly and predictable changes following disturbance or initial colonization of new habitat
  • Temperature inversions – a thin layer of the atmosphere where the normal decrease in temperature with height switches to the temperature increasing with height, acting like a lid

 

Related Vocabulary:

  • Biodegradable
  • Biological oxygen demand
  • El Niño
  • Invasive species
  • La Niña
  • Ozone
  • Plate tectonics
  • Pollution
  • Smog
  • Thermal / temperature inversion
  • Watershed
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

State:

Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483 (look under Documents)


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts hands-on laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
E.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including appropriate first aid responses to accidents that could occur in the field such as insect stings, animal bites, overheating, sprains, and breaks.

Demonstrate

SAFE PRACTICES DURING FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Wear appropriate safety equipment, such as goggles, aprons, and gloves
  • Know the location and use of safety equipment, such as first aid kits, safety shower, and eye wash
  • Know first aid responses to accidents that could occur in the field
    • Identification of poisonous organisms
    • Insect stings
    • Animal bites
    • Overheating
    • Sprains
    • Breaks
  • Follow classroom safety guidelines, as outlined in the Texas Education Agency Texas Safety Standards, 2nd Edition
  • Handle organisms appropriately
  • Use lab equipment appropriately
  • Follow field investigation guidelines
  • Limit habitat disturbance / destruction
E.1B Demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

Demonstrate

AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES AND THE DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING OF MATERIALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use and conservation of resources
    • Reducing pollution
    • Being a wise consumer
    • Use of energy efficient materials or fuels
    • Preserving habitats
  • Proper disposal or recycling of materials
    • Disposal
      • Solid and liquid chemical waste
      • Broken glassware
    • Spill cleanup
    • Recycling
      • Paper products
      • Plastics
      • Glass
      • Metals
E.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
E.2G

Demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including meter sticks, rulers, pipettes, graduated cylinders, triple beam balances, timing devices, pH meters or probes, thermometers, calculators, computers, Internet access, turbidity testing devices, hand magnifiers, work and disposable gloves, compasses, first aid kits, binoculars, field guides, water quality test kits or probes, soil test kits or probes, 100-foot appraiser's tapes, tarps, shovels, trowels, screens, buckets, and rock and mineral samples.

 

Demonstrate

THE USE OF COURSE APPARATUSES, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Appropriate use of equipment
    • Meter sticks
    • Rulers
    • Pipettes
    • Graduated cylinders
    • Triple beam balances
    • pH meters or probes
    • Thermometers
    • Calculators
    • Computers with Internet access
    • Turbidity testing devices
    • Work and disposable gloves
    • Compasses
    • First aid kits
    • Binoculars
    • Field guides
    • Water quality test kits or probes
    • Soil test kits or probes
E.2K

Communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

Communicate

VALID CONCLUSIONS SUPPORTED BY DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communicate conclusions in oral, written, and graphic forms
  • Use essential vocabulary of the discipline to communicate conclusions
  • Use appropriate writing practices consistent with scientific writing
  • Present scientific information in appropriate formats for various audiences
  • Methods for communicating conclusions
    • Lab reports
    • Labeled drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Graphic organizers (including charts and tables)
    • Journals (science notebooks)
    • Summaries
    • Oral reports
    • Technology-based reports
    • Possible additional methods for communicating conclusions:
      • Graphs

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS:
    • IV. Nature of Science: Scientific Ways of Learning and Thinking – E1 – Use several modes of expression to describe or characterize natural patterns and phenomena. These modes of expression include narrative, numerical, graphical, pictorial, symbolic, and kinesthetic.
E.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
E.3A

In all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student

Analyze, Evaluate, Critique

SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS, IN ALL FIELDS OF SCIENCE, SO AS TO ENCOURAGE CRITICAL THINKING BY THE STUDENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use
    • Empirical evidence
    • Logical reasoning
    • Experimental and observational testing
  • Examine
    • All sides of scientific evidence of those explanations

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that:
    • Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. 1A/M2
    • Some scientific knowledge is very old and yet is still applicable today. 1A/M3
    • Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data. 1B/M1b*
    • If more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one variable. It may not always be possible to prevent outside variables from influencing an investigation (or even to identify all of the variables). 1B/M2ab
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A1 – Utilize skepticism, logic, and professional ethics in science.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
E.3B

Communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials.

Communicate, Apply

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Review scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Summarize and communicate scientific information from a variety of sources
  • Evaluate the quality and accuracy of information from research sources
    • Current events
    • News reports
    • Published journal articles
    • Marketing materials
    • Possible additional sources may include:
      • Books
      • Interviews, conference papers
      • Science notebooks
      • Search engines, databases, and other media or online tools
E.4 Science concepts. The student knows the relationships of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats, ecosystems, and biomes. The student is expected to:
E.4E

Measure the concentration of solute, solvent, and solubility of dissolved substances such as dissolved oxygen, chlorides, and nitrates and describe their impact on an ecosystem.

Measure

THE CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTE, SOLVENT, AND SOLUBILITY OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dissolved substances
    • Oxygen
    • Chlorides
    • Nitrates
    • Phosphates

Describe

IMPACT OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES ON AN ECOSYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dissolved substances
    • Oxygen
    • Chlorides
    • Nitrates
    • Phosphates
  • Possible impacts may include
    • Condition of water
      • Eutrophication
      • Dead zones
    • Condition of soil
      • Soil salinity

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – A1 – Recognize the Earth’s systems.
E.8 Science concepts. The student knows that environments change naturally. The student is expected to:
E.8A

Analyze and describe the effects on areas impacted by natural events such as tectonic movement, volcanic events, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, flooding, tsunamis, and population growth.

Analyze, Describe

EFFECTS ON AREAS IMPACTED BY NATURAL EVENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Effects on resources in an area
  • Effects on size and location of populations of organisms
  • Effects on habitats
  • Natural events include, but are not limited to:
    • Tectonic movement
    • Volcanic events
    • Fires
    • Tornadoes
    • Hurricanes
    • Flooding
    • Tsunamis
    • Population growth
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Human
        • Algae blooms
        • Invasive species

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – A2 – Know the major features of the geosphere and the factors that modify them.
E.8B

Explain how regional changes in the environment may have a global effect.

Explain

HOW REGIONAL CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT MAY HAVE A GLOBAL EFFECT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Regional changes
    • Air pollution
      • Increase or decrease in carbon emissions
      • Increase or decrease in methane emissions
    • Deforestation
    • Acid deposition
    • Increase or decrease in water flow
    • Water pollution
      • Oil spills
      • Runoff
    • Soil depletion
E.8C

Examine how natural processes such as succession and feedback loops restore habitats and ecosystems.

Examine

HOW NATURAL PROCESSES RESTORE HABITATS AND ECOSYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Succession
    • Primary
    • Secondary
  • Feedback loops
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Population dynamics
      • Nutrient cycling
      • Effects of changing seasons

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • VI. Biology – G4 – Know the process of succession.
E.8D

Describe how temperature inversions impact weather conditions, including El Niño and La Niña oscillations.

Describe

HOW TEMPERATURE INVERSIONS IMPACT WEATHER CONDITIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Inversion suppressing convection
    • Violent thunderstorms
    • Freezing rain
    • Smog
  • El Niño - Southern Oscillations (ENSO)
    • El Niño oscillations
    • La Niña oscillations
    • Effects on Equatorial Pacific Ocean
      • Water current
      • Air current
      • Temperature
    • Global Effects
      • Flooding
      • Disease
      • Drought
      • Food supply

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
E.8E

Analyze the impact of temperature inversions on global warming, ice cap and glacial melting, and changes in ocean currents and surface temperatures.

Analyze

THE IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE INVERSIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Global warming
  • Ice cap
    • Changes in size
    • Changes in rate of melting per period of time
  • Glacial melting
    • Changes in duration of melting in a year
    • Changes in rate of melting per period of time
  • Changes in ocean currents
  • Surface temperatures
E.9 Science concepts. The student knows the impact of human activities on the environment. The student is expected to:
E.9A

Identify causes of air, soil, and water pollution, including point and nonpoint sources.

Identify

CAUSES OF AIR, SOIL, AND WATER POLLUTION

Including but not limited to:

  • Air pollution
    • Point sources
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Factory smoke stacks
        • Forest fires
        • Volcanoes
    • Nonpoint sources
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Automobile exhaust
        • Two stroke engine exhaust
        • Smog
        • Wood stoves
  • Soil pollution
    • Point sources
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Mining
        • Construction
        • Industrial waste
        • Improper septic maintenance
        • Pesticides
        • Herbicides
    • Nonpoint sources
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Acid rain
        • Air pollutants in rain
        • Runoff
  • Water pollution
    • Point sources
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Oil spill
        • Nuclear radiation
        • Industrial waste
    • Nonpoint sources
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Bacteria and nutrients from livestock and pets
        • Oil grease runoff
        • Fertilizer runoff
        • Herbicide runoff
        • Boating

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – A3 – Know the major features of the atmosphere.
    • X. Environmental Science – E5 – Understand how human practices affect air, water, and soil quality.
E.9B

Investigate the types of air, soil, and water pollution such as chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, pH, pesticide runoff, thermal variations, metallic ions, heavy metals, and nuclear waste.

Investigate

TYPES OF AIR, SOIL, AND WATER POLLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Carbon dioxide
  • pH
  • Pesticide runoff
  • Thermal variations
  • Metallic ions
  • Heavy metals
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Mercury
      • Cadmium
  • Nuclear waste
  • Possible additional examples may include:
    • Nitrates
    • Phosphates

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – A3 – Know the major features of the atmosphere.
    • X. Environmental Science – A4 – Know the features of the hydrosphere.
    • X. Environmental Science – E5 – Understand how human practices affect air, water, and soil quality.
E.9C

Examine the concentrations of air, soil, and water pollutants using appropriate units.

Examine

THE CONCENTRATIONS OF AIR, SOIL, AND WATER POLLUTANTS USING APPROPRIATE UNITS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Air
    • Chlorofluorocarbons (ppm or ppb)
    • Carbon dioxide (mass/time, volume/time, or Mt/yr)
    • Possible additional examples may include:
      • Sulfates (ppm)
      • Ground level ozone (ppm)
      • Sulfur dioxide (ppm)
  • Soil
    • pH (0-14)
    • Heavy metals (ppm)
    • Possible additional examples may include:
      • Phosphates (ppm)
      • Sulfates (ppm)
      • Nitrates (ppm)
  • Water
    • pH (0-14)
    • Nuclear waste (Ci, mrem, R, or C/kg)
    • Heavy metals (ppm)
    • Possible additional examples may include:
      • Phosphates (ppm)
      • Sulfates (ppm)
      • Nitrates (ppm)

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – E5 – Understand how human practices affect air, water, and soil quality.
E.9D

Describe the effect of pollution on global warming, glacial and ice cap melting, greenhouse effect, ozone layer, and aquatic viability.

Describe

THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Global warming, glacial and ice cap melting, and greenhouse effect
    • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • Possible additional examples may include:
      • Methane (CH4)
      • Nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • Ozone layer
    • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Aquatic viability
    • pH
    • Nuclear waste
    • Heavy metals

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – E5 – Understand how human practices affect air, water, and soil quality.
E.9H

Analyze and evaluate different views on the existence of global warming.

Analyze, Evaluate

DIFFERENT VIEWS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Existence of global warming
  • Extent of anthropogenic influence
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
  • Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Project 2061 is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
E.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
E.2A Know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section.

Know

THE DEFINITION OF SCIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process".

Understand

SCIENCE HAS LIMITATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • “...some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.”
  • Scientific inquiry may be limited by current technology
E.2B Know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories.

Know

THAT SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES ARE TENTATIVE AND TESTABLE STATEMENTS THAT MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING SUPPORTED OR NOT SUPPORTED BY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determine if statements represent testable hypotheses
  • Analyze data to determine whether the data support or do not support hypotheses
  • Widely tested hypotheses
    • Can have durable explanatory power
    • May be incorporated into theories

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena. 
E.2C Know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Scientific theories are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • Unlike, hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of biology and the evidence that supports them
    • Possible examples of related scientific theories may include:
      • Laws of thermodynamics
      • Theory of natural selection
      • Theory of evolution
      • Gene theory (Mendel)
      • Germ theory of disease

Know

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena
  • Scientific theories are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers
  • Unlike, hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations
  • Scientific theories may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed
    • A scientific theory may be subject to change when new evidence is inconsistent with or cannot be explained by current theory
  • Examine various scientific theories from the field of biology and the evidence that supports them
    • Possible examples of related scientific theories may include:
      • Laws of thermodynamics
      • Theory of natural selection
      • Theory of evolution
      • Gene theory (Mendel)
      • Germ theory of disease

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • I. Nature of Science – A2 – Use creativity and insight to recognize and describe patterns in natural phenomena.
    • I. Nature of Science – A4 – Rely on reproducible observations of empirical evidence when constructing, analyzing, and evaluating explanations of natural events and processes.
E.2D Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories.

Distinguish

BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES AND SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories
  • Use statements and supporting evidence to determine whether a statement is a hypothesis or a scientific theory
  • Examine examples of hypotheses and theories in the field of environmental systems

Note(s):

  • Project 2061: By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
    • In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing process leads to a better understanding of how things work in the world but not to absolute truth. 1A/H3bc*
E.2E Follow or plan and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Plan, Implement

DESCRIPTIVE, COMPARATIVE, AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Observe natural phenomena
  • Ask questions
  • Formulate testable hypotheses
  • Follow or design and conduct investigations
    •  Descriptive
    •  Comparative
    •  Experimental
  • Select appropriate equipment and technology

Note(s):

  • TEA:
    • Descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations (Texas Education Agency. (2007-2011)). Laboratory and Field Investigations–FAQ, August 2010. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=5483)
      • Descriptive investigations involve collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data to draw conclusions about a natural or man-made system (e.g., rock formation, animal behavior, cloud, bicycle, electrical circuit). A descriptive investigation includes a question, but no hypothesis. Observations are recorded, but no comparisons are made and no variables are manipulated.
      • Comparative investigations involve collecting data on different organisms/objects/ features/events, or collecting data under different conditions (e.g., time of year, air temperature, location) to make a comparison. The hypothesis identifies one independent (manipulated) variable and one dependent (responding) variable. A ―fair test* can be designed to measure variables so that the relationship between them is determined.
      • Experimental investigations involve designing a ―fair test* similar to a comparative investigation, but a control is identified. The variables are measured in an effort to gather evidence to support or not support a causal relationship. This is often called a ―controlled experiment.
      • * A fair test is conducted by making sure that only one factor (variable) is changed at a time, while keeping all other conditions the same. 
  • TxCCRS:
    • I. Nature of Science – A3 – Formulate appropriate questions to test understanding of natural phenomena.
E.2F Collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range.

Collect

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Qualitative and / or quantitative
  • On an individual or collaborative basis
  • Record values using appropriate units
  • Demonstrate use of appropriate equipment to collect data

Make 

MEASUREMENTS WITH PRECISION AND ACCURACY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Data collecting probes for pH, water quality, soil quality, etc.
  • Glassware for volume (e.g., graduated cylinders, pipettes, burettes)
  • Electronic balances for mass
  • Meter sticks and rulers for length or distance
  • Stopwatches for time

Calculate

STATISTICALLY RELEVANT QUANTITIES TO DESCRIBE DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mean
  • Median
  • Range
E.2H Use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as air quality testing devices, cameras, flow meters, Global Positioning System (GPS) units, Geographic Information System (GIS) software, computer models, densiometers, clinometers, and field journals.

Use

A WIDE VARIETY OF ADDITIONAL COURSE APPARATUSES, EQUIPMENT, TECHNIQUES, MATERIALS, AND PROCEDURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Additional equipment (as needed)
    • Air quality testing devices
    • Cameras
    • Flow meters
    • Global positions system (GPS) units
    • Geographic information system (GIS) software
    • Computer models
    • Densiometers
    • Clinometers
    • Field journals
E.2I Organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Organize, Analyze, Evaluate, Build models, Make inferences, Predict

TRENDS FROM DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using models
  • Analyze data using different modes of expression (narrative, numerical, graphical)
  • Use appropriate mathematical calculations
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Averaging
      • Percent change
      • Probabilities and ratios
      • Rate of change
  • Use appropriate standard international (SI) units
  • Analyze and evaluate data (narrative, numerical, graphical) in order to make inferences and predict trends
    • Possible data format examples may include:
      • Food chains / food webs
      • Ecological pyramids
      • Abiotic cycles
      • Data and fact tables
      • Graphs
      • Maps
      • Dichotomous Keys
      • Matrix population models
      • Demographic transition model
      • Climatogram / climatograph
      • Graphic organizers
      • Feedback loops
      • Images (e.g., illustrations, sketches, photomicrographs)
E.2J Perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation.

Perform

CALCULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scientific conventions
    • Significant digits
    • Scientific notation
    • Appropriate Standard International (SI) units
  • Mathematical procedures
    • Dimensional analysis
    • Scientific notation
    • Rules for Significant Figures (Digits)
      1. Non-zero digits and zeros between non-zero digits are always significant.
      2. Leading zeros are not significant.
      3. Zeros to the right of all non-zero digits are only significant if a decimal point is shown.
      4. For values written in scientific notation, the digits in the coefficient are significant.
      5. In a common logarithm, there are as many digits after the decimal point as there are significant figures in the original number.

Note(s):

  • The STAAR Chemistry Reference Materials include the Rules for Significant Figures as listed above.
E.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
E.3C Draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services.

Draw

INFERENCES BASED ON DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examine data from promotional materials described in print, on television, and on the Internet
  • Evaluate data from promotional materials for quality and accuracy
  • Evaluate completeness and reliability of information from sources
E.3D Evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Read scientific articles to gain understanding of the impact of research
  • Evaluate the impact of research on society, everyday life, and the environment
  • Recognize how scientific discoveries are connected to technological innovations
  • Understand how scientific research and technology have an impact on ethical and legal practices
  • Understand how commonly held ethical beliefs impact scientific research
  • Understand how scientific discoveries have impacted / changed commonly held beliefs
E.3E Describe the connection between environmental science and future careers.

Describe

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND FUTURE CAREERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Environmental science careers
    • Possible examples may include:
      • Careers in environmental law and policy
      • Careers in ecology
      • Careers in conservation
      • Careers in environmental management
      • Careers in energy and air pollution control
      • Environmental engineer
      • Environmental educator
      • Restoration ecologist
      • Marine biologist
      • Sustainable farmer
      • Renewable energy researcher
      • Forest ranger
E.3F Research and describe the history of environmental science and contributions of scientists.

Research, Describe

HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conduct research on significant events in the history of environmental science
    • Possible examples may include:
      • National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
      • Publication of Silent Spring (Rachel Carson)
      • Publication of An Essay on the Principle of Population (Thomas Malthus)
      • Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency
      • Discovery of CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere (1957)
      • Love Canal
      • Chernobyl (April 26, 1986)
      • Three Mile Island (1979)
      • Oil spills
        • California coast (Santa Barbara) (1969)
        • Alaska coast (March 24, 1989)
        • Gulf of Mexico (April, 2010)
  • Conduct research on contributions of various environmental scientists
    • Biodiversity
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Niles Eldredge
        • Charles Darwin
        • E.O. Wilson
        • Paul Ralph Ehrlich
    • Sustainability
      • Possible examples may include:
        • George Washington Carver
        • Thomas Malthus (author of An Essay on the Principle of Population)
        • Joshua Abbott
    • Stewardship
      • Possible examples may include:
        • Rachel Carson (author of Silent Spring)
        • John Wesley Powell
        • John Muir (conservationist)
        • James Hansen
E.4 Science concepts. The student knows the relationships of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats, ecosystems, and biomes. The student is expected to:
E.4A Identify native plants and animals using a dichotomous key.

Identify

NATIVE PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using a dichotomous key
    • Native plants
    • Native animals

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • VI. Biology – G1 – Identify Earth’s major biomes, giving their locations, typical climate conditions, and characteristic organisms present in each.
    • X. Environmental Science – A1 – Recognize the Earth’s systems.
    • X. Environmental Science – A5 – Be familiar with Earth’s major biomes.
E.4B Assess the role of native plants and animals within a local ecosystem and compare them to plants and animals in ecosystems within four other biomes.

Assess, Compare

THE ROLE OF NATIVE PLANTS AND ANIMALS WITHIN A LOCAL ECOSYSTEM TO OTHER PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Native plants and animals of the local ecosystem
    • Possible roles may include:
      • Keystone species
      • Apex predators
      • Population control
      • Producers
      • Consumers
      • Decomposers
  • Native plants and animals of ecosystems in other biomes
    • Possible roles may include:
      • Keystone species
      • Apex predators
      • Population control
      • Biodiversity
      • Producers
      • Consumers
      • Decomposers
    • Possible examples of biomes may include:
      • Desert
      • Deciduous forest
      • Rainforest
      • Grassland
      • Tundra
      • Taiga
      • Savanna
      • Salt water
      • Fresh water

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – A1 – Recognize the Earth’s systems.
    • X. Environmental Science – A4 – Know the features of the hydrosphere.
    • X. Environmental Science – A5 – Be familiar with Earth’s major biomes.
E.4C Diagram abiotic cycles, including the rock, hydrologic, carbon, and nitrogen cycles.

Diagram

ABIOTIC CYCLES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Abiotic cycles
    • Rock
    • Hydrologic
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
      • Chemical forms of each element at each stage of the cycle (TxCCRS)
    • Possible additional examples include:
      • Oxygen-water
      • Sulfur
      • Phosphorus

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • X. Environmental Science – A1 – Recognize the Earth’s systems.
    • X. Environmental Science – A5 – Be familiar with Earth’s major biomes.
    • X. Environmental Science – A6 – Describe the Earth’s major biogeochemical cycles.
E.4D Make observations and compile data about fluctuations in abiotic cycles and evaluate the effects of abiotic factors on local ecosystems and local biomes.

Make

OBSERVATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fluctuations in abiotic cycles
    • Precipitation data
    • Temperature ranges
    • Nutrient concentrations
    • Energy

Compile

DATA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fluctuations in abiotic cycles
    • Precipitation data
    • Temperature ranges
    • Nutrient concentrations
    • Energy

Evaluate

THE EFFECTS OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON LOCAL ECOSYSTEMS AND LOCAL BIOMES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Impact of abiotic cycles on ecosystems and biomes
    • Where an organism can live
    • How much a population can grow
      • Limiting factors
    • Tolerance range
    • Eutrophication

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • VI. Biology – C2 – Recognize variations in population sizes, including extinction, and describe mechanisms and conditions that produce these variations.
    • X. Environmental Science – A1 – Recognize the Earth’s systems. 
E.4F Predict how the introduction or removal of an invasive species may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem.

Predict

HOW INTRODUCTION OR REMOVAL OF AN INVASIVE SPECIES MAY ALTER THE FOOD CHAIN AND AFFECT EXISTING POPULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Introduction of invasive species
  • Impacts
    • Economic
      • Commercial
      • Agricultural
      • Recreational
    • Biodiversity
      • Prevent native species from reproducing
      • Out-compete native species for food and other resources
        • Decrease biodiversity
    • Habitat alteration
      • Threat to native wildlife
    • Food chain
      • Destroy or replace native food sources
      • Altering ecosystem conditions (e.g., soil chemistry)
  • Removal of invasive species
  • Impacts
    • Economic
      • Cost of removal
      • Cost of restoration
    • Biodiversity
      • Alteration of organisms in soil
      • Germination, growth, and establishment of native organisms
    • Alteration of food chain / web

Note(s):

  • TxCCRS Note:
    • VI. Biology – G4 – Know the process of succession.
E.4G Predict how species extinction may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem.

Predict

HOW SPECIES EXTINCTION MAY ALTER THE FOOD CHAIN AND AFFECT EXISTING POPULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Impact on food chain
    • Initial impact on extinct species’ predators and prey
    • Long term impact on food chain stability
    • Magnitude of impact based on species role in an ecosystem
      • Keystone species
      • Apex predator
  • Impact on existing populations
    • Possible endangerment and / or extinction of other organisms
    • Possible population growth of other organisms
E.4H Research and explain the causes of species diversity and predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if species and genetic diversity is increased or reduced.

Research, Explain

CAUSES OF SPECIES DIVERSITY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Climate
    • Latitudinal gradients
    • Altitudinal gradients
  • Food availability
    • Productivity
  • Disturbances (e.g., glaciation)
  • Biological interactions
    • Predation
    • Competition
    • Mutualism
    • Parasitism
    • Disease

Predict

CHANGES THAT MAY OCCUR IN AN ECOSYSTEM IF SPECIES AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IS INCREASED OR REDUCED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Increases in species and genetic diversity
    • Possible changes that may occur:
      • Evolution through natural selection
      • Ecosystem stability
      • Carrying capacity
  • Decreases in species and genetic diversity
    • Possible changes that may occur:
      • Evolution through natural selection
      • Ecosystem stability
      • Carrying capacity
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 04/27/2020
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