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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 4 English Language Arts and Reading
TITLE : Unit 02: Understanding Literary Nonfiction and Drama SUGGESTED DURATION : 20 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address the structures of literary nonfiction and drama in order to examine the narrative subject as a primary means of oral and written communication. Genre study connects reading and writing to allow students to become better writers and strategic readers that approach text meaningfully and purposefully, while optimizing understanding and communication. Students are immersed in a variety of literary works to comprehend text and communicate authentically about reading and writing. Autobiographies, biographies, and drama provide the avenue to allow students to make inferences, summarize, analyze characters, and provide textual evidence during their reading experiences. Students continue to examine teacher selected and student selected literature and media based on individual interests and abilities providing opportunities to make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres.

In Grade 03, students became more fluent, automatic, and purposeful in their reading and writing. They examined points of view in autobiographies and biographies and described, explained, and related structural elements of poetry and drama. Students continued to compose texts using the fundamentals of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing). During this unit, students continue to examine autobiographies and biographies by comparing and contrasting them with a fictional adaptation. Students explore the structural elements of drama as oral and written expression becomes more fluent, authentic, and focused. They continue to identify and select comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading and continue to use literary elements to make inferences and explain theme within literary works. Students use the writing process and the conventions of written expression to write about important personal experiences. As they compose text to express their ideas and feelings, students become more thorough writers by learning from the text structure and applying the writer’s craft. The writer’s craft involves applying strategies that lead to depth, voice, and focus. Sensory language, such as simile and metaphors, is identified in literary text and explored in writing to create an experience that appeals to the senses. Vocabulary development increases as students generate a new perspective and appreciation for literature. Word study is inclusive of genre specific vocabulary, literary terms, and appropriate vocabulary from the literature.

Performance Assessment(s) Overarching Concepts
Unit Concepts
Unit Understandings
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Interpretation – Information

Form – Biography

Authors often interview or conduct research in order to find out more information on a given topic.

Interpretation – Knowledge

Conventions – Oral Conventions

Effective listening and speaking builds background knowledge and supports collaboration.

Conventions – Handwriting, Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation, Capitalization

Authors use conventions of written language to communicate clearly and effectively.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Interpretation – Understanding

Form – Personal Narrative

Perception – Interest

Authors use writer’s craft to engage and sustain the reader’s interest.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Interpretation – Meaning

Elements – Character, Plot, Theme, Setting, Audience

Understanding literary elements facilitates the reader’s ability to make meaning of the text.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Interpretation – Information

Form – Fictional Story, Biography, Autobiography

Fictional stories sometimes contain information that mirrors a person’s biography/autobiography.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Interpretation – Understanding, Connections

Perception – Thoughts

Readers use strategies to support understanding of text.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Interpretation – Vocabulary

An extensive vocabulary enhances oral and written communication.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

  • Autobiographythe life story of a person, as told by himself or herself
  • Biography – an account or interpretation of a series of events making up a person’s life
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

This chart provides an organizational structure for the TEKS included in this unit. Ongoing TEKS may be reviewed during whole group and small group instruction or applied by students through meaningful practice.

Instructional Components Chart (*ELAR / SLAR Only')

Instructional Components TEKS Ongoing TEKS Formative Assessment Examples

Word Study

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: 4.2A, 4.2B, 4.2E
Spelling: 4.22A.i, 4.22A.ii, 4.22A.iii, 4.22A.iv, 4.22B, 4.22C, 4.22D

Informal Language Sample

 

Observation Data

 

Teacher-Student Conference

 

Checklist

 

Rubric

 

Reader’s Notebook

 

Reading Log

 

Writer’s Notebook

 

Word Study Notebook

 

Oral Fluency Check

 

Portfolio

Shared Reading/Independent Reading

TEKS
Vocabulary Development: 4.2B
Drama: 4.5A
Fiction: 4.6A, 4.6B, 4.6C
Literary Nonfiction: 4.7A
Sensory Language: 4.8A
Media Literacy: 4.14B
Expository and Procedural Texts: 4.18C
Comprehension Skills: 4.Fig19A, 4.Fig19B, 4.Fig19C, 4.Fig19D, 4.Fig19E, 4.Fig19F
Ongoing TEKS
Fluency: 4.1A
Independent Reading: 4.9A
Listening: 4.27A
Speaking: 4.28A
Teamwork: 4.29A

Writing

TEKS
Writing Process: 4.15A, 4.15B, 4.15C, 4.15D, 4.15E
Personal: 4.17A
Conventions: 4.20A.iii, 4.20A.iv, 4.20A.v, 4.20A.viii, 4.20B, 4.20C
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: 4.21B.i, 4.21B.ii, 4.21B.iii, 4.21C.i, 4.21C.ii
Spelling: 4.22A.i, 4.22A.ii, 4.22A.iii, 4.22A.iv, 4.22B, 4.22C, 4.22D
Ongoing TEKS
Conventions: 4.20A.i, 4.20A.ii
Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation: 4.21A
Listening: 4.27A
Speaking: 4.28A
Teamwork: 4.29A
The phase 2 College Readiness English Language Arts and Reading vertical alignment team found that the College Readiness Standards in English Language Arts and Reading are well aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.
TEKS# SE# TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Bold black text in italics: Knowledge and Skills Statement (TEKS) and Texas College and Career Readiness Standard (TxCCRS)
  • Bold black text: Student Expectation (TEKS)
  • Bold red text in italics: Student Expectation identified by TEA as a Readiness Standard for STAAR
  • Bold green text in italics: Student Expectation identified by TEA as a Supporting Standard for STAAR
  • Strike-through: Indicates portions of the Student Expectation that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future unit(s)

Legend:

  • Blue text: Supporting information / Clarifications from TCMPC (Specificity)
  • Bold blue text:Standards for Ensuring Success from Kindergarten to College and Career Spring 2012 Update, 2012 Texas Education Agency/University of Texas System
  • Blue text in italics: Unit-specific clarification
  • Black text: Texas Education Agency (TEA)
4.2 Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.B - English/Language Arts/Reading. Understand new vocabulary and concepts and use them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing.
4.2A Determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.
Readiness Standard

Determine

THE MEANING OF GRADE-LEVEL ACADEMIC ENGLISH WORDS DERIVED FROM LATIN, GREEK, OR OTHER LINGUISTIC ROOTS AND AFFIXES

Possible examples:

  • Latin – e.g., audi (audience, auditory), vis (vision, invisible), dict (dictator, contradict), able, ible
  • Greek – e.g., auto (autobiography, autograph), bio (biology, biography), tele (telegraph, telepathy), meter (speedometer, perimeter, thermometer), ology, phobia
  • Other affixes and roots as found in appropriate grade-level text in multi content areas

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

Academic English words

  1. words used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal educational context that are associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms, technical language, and speech registers related to each field of study
  2. words used during instruction and exams, and in textbooks

These could include words that are specific to content (e.g., hyperbole, metaphor, and meter) or that are related to learning tasks (e.g., compare/contrast, differentiate, and infer).

STAAR Note:
Questions associated with 4.2A may refer students back to the paragraph in the passage that contains the word being assessed. Context, along with word parts, is important in determining word meaning. Refer to 4.2B for the standard addressing context clues.

4.2B Use the context of the sentence (e.g., in-sentence example or definition) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple meaning words.
Readiness Standard

Use

CONTEXT OF THE SENTENCE

Context – the words, sentences, or passages that precede or follow a specific word, sentence, or passage

To determine

THE MEANING OF  UNFAMILIAR WORDS OR MULTIPLE MEANING WORDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify and use relationships among surrounding words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs
  • Use in-sentence examples
  • Use definitions in the sentence

Multiple meaning word – a word that has more than one meaning (e.g., trunk)

4.2E

Use a dictionary or glossary to determine the meanings, syllabication, and pronunciation of unknown words.


Readiness Standard

Use

A DICTIONARY

To determine

THE MEANINGS, SYLLABICATION, AND PRONUNCIATION OF UNKNOWN WORDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use guide words and/or knowledge of alphabetical order to locate words
  • Use the given syllabication and the phonetic symbols to pronounce unknown words
  • Read the definition(s) and determine the meaning of the word (using context as applicable)

Syllabication – forming or dividing words into syllables

Pronunciation – the manner in which someone utters a word

STAAR Note:

Questions associated with 4.2E may refer students back to the paragraph in the passage that contains the word being assessed. Context, along with dictionary skills, is important in determining word meaning. Refer to 4.2B for the standard addressing context clues.
4.Fig19 Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.D - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Academic behaviors
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.A - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Reading across the curriculum
4.Fig19A Establish purposes for reading selected texts based upon own or others’ desired outcome to enhance comprehension.

Establish

PURPOSES FOR READING SELECTED TEXTS BASED UPON OWN AND OTHERS’ DESIRED OUTCOME TO ENHANCE COMPREHENSION

Possible examples:

  • To learn
  • To interpret or follow directions
  • To solve problems
  • For enjoyment
4.Fig19B Ask literal, interpretive, and evaluative questions of text.

Ask

LITERAL, INTERPRETIVE, AND EVALUATIVE QUESTIONS OF TEXT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Before, during, and after reading  

Literal question – knowledge level, fact-based question (e.g., who, what, when, where, why, and how questions), questions asked for clarification

Interpretive question – may have more than one answer and requires that the answer(s) be supported with evidence from the text (e.g., What does this mean?)

Evaluative question – asks for an opinion, a belief, or a point of view. Responses may represent different perspectives and should be supported with evidence from the text. (e.g., Do you agree or disagree? What do you feel about this? What do you believe about this? What is your opinion about this?)

4.Fig19C Monitor and adjust comprehension (e.g., using background knowledge, creating sensory images, rereading a portion aloud, generating questions).

Monitor, Adjust

COMPREHENSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use background knowledge
  • Create sensory images (images created by using the five senses – sight, smell, sound, touch, taste)
  • Re-read a portion aloud
  • Use contextual clues (refer to 4.2B)
  • Generate literal, interpretive, and evaluative questions (refer to 4.Fig19B)
  • Ask for help
4.Fig19D Make inferences about text using textual evidence to support understanding.
Readiness Standard (Fiction)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama)

Make

INFERENCES ABOUT TEXT

Including, but not limited to:
Literary Text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)

  • Structural elements
  • Literary elements
  • Sensory language
  • Figurative language
  • Purpose of elements and language in sections of text and/or specific sentences

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each literary genre for additional information on inferring in each type of literary text.

Informational Text (e.g., expository, persuasive, embedded procedural text/graphics)

  • Purpose of informational text
  • Main idea of whole texts and sections of texts
  • Details that support the central idea or controlling idea

Note:
Refer to the specificity of the Knowledge and Skills Statements for each informational genre for additional information on inferring in each type of informational text.

Inference – a logical guess made by connecting bits of information. Readers make inferences by drawing conclusions, making generalizations, and making predictions.

Drawing conclusions – a form of inference in which the reader gathers information, considers the general thoughts or ideas that emerge from the information, and comes to a decision. The conclusion is generally based on more than one piece of information.

Use

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

Textual evidence – specific details or facts found in the text that support what is inferred

4.Fig19E Summarize information in text, maintaining meaning and logical order.
Readiness Standard (Fiction)
Supporting Standard (Literary Nonfiction, Poetry, and Drama)

Summarize

INFORMATION IN TEXT, MAINTAINING MEANING AND LOGICAL ORDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Brief, coherent sentences that communicate the key information, ideas, or events in logical order
  • Main ideas from the beginning, middle, and end

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

STAAR Note:
Students may be required to summarize in multiple genres, including drama, literary nonfiction, expository text, and fiction.

4.Fig19F

Make connections (e.g., thematic links, author analysis) between literary and informational texts with similar ideas and provide textual evidence.


Readiness Standard

Make

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LITERARY AND INFORMATIONAL TEXTS WITH SIMILAR IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic links
  • Author analysis
  • Similarities and differences in:
    • topic
    • overarching ideas
    • details
    • description
    • purpose
    • character thoughts, actions, and traits
    • point of view

Thematic link – a logical connection made between or among texts that share similar themes

Possible literary genres:

  • Fiction
  • Literary nonfiction
  • Poetry
  • Drama

Possible informational genres:

  • Expository
  • Persuasive
  • Procedural

Provide

TEXTUAL EVIDENCE

Textual evidence – specific details or facts found in text that support what is inferred

4.3 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre.

Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THEME IN DIFFERENT, CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including but not limited to:

  • Determine the theme (message/lesson) in various literary genres (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, literary nonfiction)
  • Make inferences about details that support the theme (message/lesson/important idea)

Analyze, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT GENRE IN DIFFERENT, CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS

Including but not limited to:

  • Distinguish characteristics of various genres (e.g., biography – based on real-life experiences, realistic fiction – events that take place could happen)

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D.

4.3A Summarize and explain the lesson or message of a work of fiction as its theme.
Supporting Standard

Summarize, Explain

THE LESSON OR MESSAGE OF A WORK OF FICTION AS ITS THEME

 Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret the same meaning as the author’s message

Possible works of fiction:

  • Fable
  • Legend
  • Myth
  • Historical fiction
  • Realistic fiction

Summarize to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Theme – the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. Themes are ideas or concepts that relate to morals and values and speak to the human experience.

Possible examples of theme:

  • Good friends are important
  • Believe in yourself
  • Hard work leads to rewards
4.5 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF DRAMA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole script
  • Make inferences related to a part of the script (e.g., scene, paragraph) including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to particular structural elements (e.g., lines, dialogue/quotation, stage direction, props) within part or all of the script including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to particular elements of drama (e.g., setting, character, plot, events)
  • Summarize dramatic text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in drama

 

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D and/or Figure 19E.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
4.5A Describe the structural elements particular to dramatic literature.
Supporting Standard

Describe

THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS PARTICULAR TO DRAMATIC LITERATURE

Possible examples of structural elements:

  • Stage directions
  • Scenes
  • Props
  • Dialogue

Structural elements of drama help to develop the following literary elements:

  • Setting – ex. props and costumes develop the significance of images of time and place
  • Character – ex. dialogue reveals choices and actions taken by the characters
  • Plot – ex. acts and scenes organize the events in the story

Dialogue – the lines spoken between characters in fiction or a play. Dialogue in a play is the main way in which plot, character, and other elements are established.

4.6 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE STRUCTURE AND ELEMENTS OF FICTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole story
  • Make inferences related to a part of the story
  • Make inferences related to structure of fiction (e.g., organization, paragraphs)
  • Make inferences related to particular elements of fiction
    • Character/narrator - actions, thoughts, motivation, qualities/traits
    • Plot/events
    • Setting
  • Summarize fictional text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in fiction

STAAR Note:

  • This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D and/or Figure 19E.
  • Many STAAR items that assess summary include two choices that are plausible. Students must be able to compare the choices to determine which one is the BEST.
TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
4.6A Sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events.
Readiness Standard

Sequence, Summarize

THE PLOT’S MAIN EVENTS 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Order events chronologically (possibly using a graphic organizer)
  • Determine the main idea of a portion of the story
  • Identify how an event affects the overall story (cause-effect)
  • Identify important story elements including problem and solution

Plot – the basic sequence of events in a story. In conventional stories, plot has three main parts: rising action, climax, and falling action. The plot includes the problem and solution.

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main ideas Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Explain

THEIR INFLUENCE ON FUTURE EVENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Predict future outcomes and actions throughout the story and at the end

Note:
Even though students are not required to know the specific plot elements (e.g., rising action, problem, climax, solution, falling action) in reading, students are required to write an imaginative story that builds a plot to a climax and contains details about the characters and setting. Refer to 4.16A for related writing standard.

4.6B Describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo.
Readiness Standard

Describe

THE INTERACTION OF CHARACTERS INCLUDING THEIR RELATIONSHIPS AND THE CHANGES THEY UNDERGO

Interactions include what characters do (actions) and/or say (dialogue)

Possible examples of character changes:

  • Intellectual, emotional, and physical change
  • From beginning to end
  • Changes in relationships
  • Before an event and after an event in the plot

Possible examples of relationships:

  • Family
  • Friend
  • Enemy

Interactions between characters may also reveal character thoughts/feelings, traits, motivations, and actions.

4.6C Identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.
Supporting Standard

Identify

WHETHER THE NARRATOR OR SPEAKER OF A STORY IS FIRST OR THIRD PERSON

Including, but not limited to:

  • First-person – narrated by a character or characters inside the story using the pronoun “I”
  • Third-person – narrated by someone who is not directly involved in the story and is usually not identified by name and refers to the characters by their name or personal pronouns (e.g., he, she, they)

Point of view – the perspective from which the events in the story are told; the vantage point or stance

STAAR Note:
Students may be asked to identify the actual narrator/speaker of the story.
4.7 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

ABOUT THE VARIED STRUCTURAL PATTERNS AND FEATURES OF LITERARY NONFICTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to the whole literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to a section or part of the literary nonfiction text
  • Make inferences related to the structure of literary nonfiction (e.g., organization, main idea, cause-effect) including author's purpose
  • Make inferences related to features of literary nonfiction (e.g., subject of a biography or author of an autobiography, setting, events)
  • Make inferences related to specific details in literary nonfiction text including author's purpose
  • Make inferences supported by text features (e.g., headings, subheadings, bold print, captions, key words, italics, table of contents, etc.)
  • Summarize literary nonfiction text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order

Summarize – to reduce large sections of text to their essential points and main idea. Note: It is still important to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.

Respond by providing

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify text evidence that supports inferences in literary nonfiction text

 

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D and/or Figure 19E.

TxCCRS Reading
TxCCRS E/LAS.II.A - English/Language Arts/Reading. Locate explicit textual information and draw complex inferences, analyze, and evaluate the information within and across texts of varying lengths.
4.7A Identify similarities and differences between the events and characters' experiences in a fictional work and the actual events and experiences described in an author's biography or autobiography.
Supporting Standard

Identify

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE EVENTS AND CHARACTERS’ EXPERIENCES IN A FICTIONAL WORK AND THE ACTUAL EVENTS AND EXPERIENCES DESCRIBED IN AN AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY OR AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Compare and contrast events and characters’ experiences in a fictional work and a biography or autobiography

Autobiography – the life story of a person as told by himself or herself

Biography – an account or interpretations of a series of events making up a person’s life

Literary nonfiction – a type of narrative based on actual persons, places, and things. In literary nonfiction, a writer may construct text in any number of ways and is not limited to the organizational patterns normally associated with nonfiction texts. (e.g., biography, autobiography, memoir)

Note:
Subjects of a biography and autobiography do not need to be famous, infamous, or outstanding for their lives to communicate important lessons about people and society.

4.8 Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language.

Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

Understand, Make inferences, Draw conclusions

HOW AN AUTHOR’S SENSORY LANGUAGE CREATES IMAGERY IN LITERARY TEXT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Make inferences related to sensory language
  • Make inferences related to figurative language (e.g., idiom, simile)

Sensory language – words an author uses to help the reader experience the sense elements of the story. Sensory language is language that appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.

Figurative language  language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM TEXT TO SUPPORT THEIR UNDERSTANDING

STAAR Note:
This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D.

4.8A Identify the author's use of similes and metaphors to produce imagery.
Supporting Standard

Identify

THE AUTHOR’S USE OF SIMILES AND METAPHORS TO PRODUCE IMAGERY

 Including, but not limited to:

  • Locate similes and/or metaphors that help create imagery in the reader’s mind.
  • Determine how the simile and/or metaphors creates meaning

Simile – a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)

Metaphor – a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations)

Imagery – the use of language to create mental images and sensory impressions. Imagery can be used for emotional effect and to intensify the impact on the reader. The following is an example of imagery from Romeo and Juliet: Her eyes in heaven/ Would through the airy region stream so bright/ That birds would sing and think it were not night (2.2.20–22).

4.14 Reading/Media Literacy.

Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:


Supporting Standard

Use

COMPREHENSION SKILLS

Analyze

HOW WORDS, IMAGES, AND SOUNDS WORK TOGETHER IN VARIOUS FORMS TO IMPACT MEANING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Interpret words, images, and sounds in media and consider their effect on meaning
  • Determine the purpose of embedded media
  • Determine how embedded media supports information in the text
  • Determine how details in the text connect to information and/or ideas being presented in embedded media

STAAR Note:

  • In 2013, 2014, and 2015, all dual-coded media items in 3rd-5th grade were assessed using embedded photographs.
  • This Knowledge and Skills Statement may be assessed with Figure 19D.
TxCCRS Listening
TxCCRS E/LAS.IV.A - English/Language Arts/Listening. Apply listening skills as an individual and as a member of a group in a variety of settings (e.g., lectures, discussions, conversations, team projects, presentations, interviews).
TxCCRS Key Cognitive Skills
TxCCRS CDS.I.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Key Cognitive Skills. Reasoning
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.E - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Technology
4.14B Explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., pacing, close-ups, sound effects).

Explain

HOW VARIOUS DESIGN TECHNIQUES USED IN MEDIA INFLUENCE THE MESSAGE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sound (e.g., background music, volume, sound effects)
  • Movement (e.g., feet moving quickly, hair blowing in the wind, pacing)
  • Visuals (e.g., pictures, graphs, graphics, colors, shapes, close- ups)
4.15 Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
4.15A

Plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals).

Plan

A FIRST DRAFT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Generate ideas or topics through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals, etc.)
  • Select a focused idea or topic
  • Determine the purpose or intended meaning of the idea or topic
  • Determine an appropriate audience
  • Generate and categorize ideas and details about the selected topic (e.g., webbing, graphic organizer, listing, etc.)

Purpose – the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Genre – the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content

Examples of purposes for writing:

  • To entertain
  • To explain
  • To describe
  • To inform
  • To persuade
  • To respond

Brainstorming – a technique in which many ideas are generated quickly and without judgment or evaluation, usually as part of a problem-solving process or to inspire creative thinking. Brainstorming may be done in a classroom, with a small group, or individually.

Note:
This is the first step in the writing process, often referred to as prewriting or planning.

4.15B Develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs.
Readiness Standard

Develop

DRAFTS BY CATEGORIZING IDEAS AND ORGANIZING THEM INTO PARAGRAPHS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Organize the draft according to genre and purpose
  • Include ideas and details that are strongly related and contribute to the central idea or message of the piece
  • Develop a draft that is focused and  well controlled with meaningful transitions and connections
  • Choose words that are purposeful and precise and support the overall meaning (or purpose) of the piece

Organization of a paper – the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.

Word choice – the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader

Note:
This is the second step in the writing process, often referred to as drafting. The focus is on developing ideas and the message, not on mechanics.

4.15C Revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience.
Readiness Standard

Revise

DRAFTS FOR COHERENCE, ORGANIZATION, USE OF SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES, AND AUDIENCE

Revise – changing, adding, or deleting words, phrases, or sentences to clarify and/or to enhance the message based on the intended audience

Including, but not limited to:

  • Improve coherence
  • Review and adjust organization
  • Use varied sentences, both simple and compound, that are purposeful and well controlled to enhance the effectiveness of the piece
  • Provide appropriate details to support main idea and/or eliminate extraneous details
  • Include sensory details to enhance the message
  • Incorporate precise words that create visual images

Coherent – logically ordered, with consistent relations of parts to the whole (e.g., a coherent essay)

Word choice – the author’s thoughtful use of precise vocabulary to fully convey meaning to the reader

Organization of a Paper – the development of ideas in a coherent manner. In a well-organized paper, main points should be supported, each idea should flow sequentially and logically to the next idea, transitions should connect ideas, and extraneous sentences should not be included.

Simple sentence – a sentence with one clause (e.g., the chicken crossed the road)

Compound sentence – a sentence composed of at least two independent clauses linked with a conjunction (e.g., Sam talked, and Emma listened)

Audience – the intended target group for a message, regardless of the medium

Revisions may include, but are not limited to:

  • Revise entire sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Run-on sentences and comma splices
    • Order of words and phrases (e.g., misplaced prepositional phrases)
    • Repetition/Redundancy
  • Revise single words and phrases including, but not limited to:
    • General vs. specific
    • Formal vs. informal
    • Synonym vs. antonym
    • Pronoun specificity
  • Add/insert entire sentences including, but not limited to:
    • Topic sentence for the entire paper
    • Topic sentence to a paragraph
    • Closing/concluding sentences that emphasize the overall message or central idea
    • Relevant details in appropriate places
  • Add/insert single words and/or phrases including, but not limited to:
    • Transitions
  • Delete unnecessary sentences/details
  • Combine sentences into a single sentence while maintaining meaning and clarity and avoiding comma splices, run-ons, and fragments

Note:
While this is considered the third step in the writing process, revision may be ongoing throughout the writing process.

4.15D Edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric.
Readiness Standard

Edit

DRAFTS FOR GRAMMAR, MECHANICS, AND SPELLING USING A TEACHER-DEVELOPED RUBRIC

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conventions/Grammar (refer to 4.20Ai-viii,B,C)
  • Capitalization (refer to 4.21Bi-iii)
  • Punctuation (refer to 4.21Ci-ii)
  • Spelling (refer to 4.22Ai-v,B,C)
  • Use resources to find correct spellings (refer to 4.22D)
  • Previously taught expectations in grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

Note:
This is the fourth step in the writing process. The focus is on grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

STAAR Note:
Questions related to editing may include the following written conventions in the correct answer and/or the distractors:

  • Pronoun use (e.g., I vs. me)
  • Plural vs. possessive (apostrophe use)
  • Subject/verb agreement (including compound subjects)
  • Consistent verb tense
  • Parts of speech (e.g., eagerly vs. eager)
  • Comma usage (e.g., in a series, in compound sentences, etc.)
  • Compound sentences vs. compound subject/predicate
  • Capitalization of proper nouns vs. no capital for common nouns
  • Common spelling errors (e.g., then/than, are/our, quite/quiet)
  • Homophones (e.g., to/too/two, there/their)
  • Double consonants in the middle of words (e.g., grinning, attention)
  • Extra or missing quotation marks
  • Punctuation in quotations including ending punctuation, commas, and quotation marks
  • Capitalization in quotations
  • Incomplete sentences
4.15E Revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for a specific audience.

Revise

FINAL DRAFT IN RESPONSE TO FEEDBACK FROM PEERS AND TEACHER

  • Refer to 4.15C for revision expectations

Publish

WRITTEN WORK FOR A SPECIFIC AUDIENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use legible handwriting with appropriate spacing and/or use available technology to publish written work
  • Share published work with an appropriate audience
  • Refer to Speaking 4.28A (as applicable)

Note:
This is the last step in the writing process. Publishing can be done in many forms including producing a final written product or by orally sharing with others.

4.17 Writing/Personal. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
4.17A Write about important personal experiences.

Write

ABOUT IMPORTANT PERSONAL EXPERIENCES

Possible examples:

  • Personal narrative
  • Journal/diary
  • Reflection
  • Short story

Considerations when writing about personal experiences:

  • Focus on one particular experience that is realistic and believable
  • Use structure that is appropriate to purpose (e.g., sequential, cause/effect)
  • Provide details that are vivid and expressive and contribute to understanding the personal experience
  • Convey a sense of why the experience was important

Personal narrative – an expressive literary piece written in first person that centers on a particular event in the author’s life and may contain vivid description as well as personal commentary and observations

4.18 Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS E/LAS.I.A - English/Language Arts/Writing. Compose a variety of texts that demonstrate clear focus, the logical development of ideas in well-organized paragraphs, and the use of appropriate language that advances the author's purpose.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
4.18C Write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.

Write

RESPONSES TO LITERARY OR EXPOSITORY TEXTS

Possible examples:

  • Ideas, reflections, responses to text, connections, recording information

Provide

EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT TO DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING

Textual evidence – specific details or facts found in text that support what is inferred

4.20 Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
TxCCRS Writing
TxCCRS Edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate.
TxCCRS Foundational Skills
TxCCRS CDS.II.B - Cross-Disciplinary Standards/Foundational Skills. Writing across the curriculum
TxCCRS Write clearly and coherently using standard writing conventions.
4.20A Use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:
Readiness Standard

Use, Understand

THE FUNCTION OF THE FOLLOWING PARTS OF SPEECH IN THE CONTEXT OF READING, WRITING, AND SPEAKING:

STAAR Note:

Questions related to parts of speech may include the following:

  • Subject/verb agreement
  • Consistent verb tense
  • Irregular verbs (past tense)
  • Adverb usage (e.g., good vs. well)
4.20A.iii adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including purpose: sleeping bag, frying pan) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., fast, faster, fastest)
Supporting Standard

Including but not limited to:

  • Comparative adjectives using -er and -ier
  • Superlative adjectives using -est

Adjective – a word that describes a noun or a pronoun

Purpose adjective – describes a noun’s purpose (e.g., sleeping bag, frying pan)

Comparative – the form of an adjective used to compare two or more things. Comparatives are formed using -er (e.g., taller, faster), -ier (e.g., happier), or the word more (e.g., more traditional).

Superlative – an adjective indicating the greatest (or least) degree of something. A superlative is usually formed using -est (e.g., the best and the brightest).

4.20A.iv adverbs (e.g., frequency: usually, sometimes; intensity: almost, a lot)
Supporting Standard

Adverb – a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb

Adverbs of frequency – tell how often an action takes place (e.g., The teacher usually gives us free time.)
Examples of adverbs of frequency:

  • always
  • usually
  • sometimes
  • occasionally

Adverbs of intensity/degree – tell how strong the action is (e.g., She was very tired.)
Examples of adverbs of intensity/degree:

  • almost
  • a lot
  • just
  • too
  • extremely
4.20A.v prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details
Supporting Standard

Preposition – a word that relates its object to another word in the sentence (e.g., at in at school or of in of your writing)

Prepositional phrase – a phrase that begins with a preposition and is followed by an object (e.g., on the road and by now)

4.20A.viii use time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion
Supporting Standard

Transitional words and phrases – words or phrases that help to sustain a thought or idea through the writing. They link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are not abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.  

Possible examples of time-order transition words include:  

  • First, soon, immediately, while, during, occasionally, second, then, at that time, meanwhile, when, frequently, now, until, already, after, in the meantime, next

Conclusion transition words – words or phrases that help the reader or writer conclude thoughts or ideas (e.g., in other words, to sum up, finally, in summary, in conclusion, on the whole, lastly)

Possible examples of transitions that indicate a conclusion:

  • In other words, to sum up, finally, in summary, in conclusion, on the whole, lastly, etc.
4.20B Use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence.
Readiness Standard

Use

THE COMPLETE SUBJECT AND THE COMPLETE PREDICATE IN A SENTENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Compound subject – made up of two or more simple subjects sharing the same verb and joined by a conjunction (e.g., The dog and cat chased the birds.)

Complete subject – all the words that tell who or what the sentence is about (e.g., The furry dog barks at night.)

Complete predicate – all the words that tell what the subject does, did, is, or was (e.g., The furry dog barks at night.)

Run-on sentence – consists of two or more simple sentences missing either proper punctuation or coordinating conjunction (e.g., Charlotte built her web others came to see it.)

Fragment – part of a sentence (an incomplete thought) that is misssing a subject or predicate (e.g., Built a web. The busy spider.)

STAAR Note:
Items associated with 4.20B may include answer choices with a variety of incorrect sentences including run-ons, fragments, and comma splices.
4.20C Use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
Supporting Standard

Use

COMPLETE SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES WITH CORRECT SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Singular subjects
  • Plural subjects

Simple sentence – a sentence with one clause (e.g., the chicken crossed the road)

Compound sentence – a sentence composed of at least two independent clauses linked with a conjunction (e.g., Sam talked, and Emma listened)

Run-on sentence – consists of two or more simple sentences missing either proper punctuation or coordinating conjunction (e.g., Charlotte built her web others came to see it.)  

Fragment – part of a sentence (an incomplete thought) that is missing a subject or predicate (e.g., Built a web. The busy spider.)

4.21 Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:
4.21B Use capitalization for:
Readiness Standard

Use

CAPITALIZATION FOR:

4.21B.i historical events and documents
Supporting Standard

Possible examples:

  • Historical events (e.g., Battle of the Alamo, Battle of San Jacinto, Texas Revolution, etc.)
  • Historical documents (e.g., Texas Declaration of Independence, Treaty of Velasco)
4.21B.ii titles of books, stories, and essays
Supporting Standard

Including, but not limited to:

  • Capitalize the first, last, and all the main words in titles (e.g., Time for Kids, New York Times, America the Beautiful, Green Eggs and Ham, etc.)
4.21B.iii languages, races, and nationalities
Supporting Standard

Possible examples:

  • Languages (e.g., English, Spanish, French, etc.)
  • Race – a group of persons of common descent or heredity (e.g., Asian Caucasian, Hispanic, etc.)
  • Nationality – the status of belonging to a particular nation whether by birth or nationalization (e.g., American, Mexican, Vietnamese, etc.)
4.21C Recognize and use punctuation marks including:
Readiness Standard

Recognize, Use

PUNCTUATION MARKS INCLUDING:

4.21C.i commas in compound sentences
Supporting Standard

A comma precedes the coordinating conjunction (e.g., I lost my ring, but Mom found it.)

Compound sentence – consists of two or more simple sentences joined by a conjunction and a comma    

Other possible grade-appropriate uses of commas:

  • Between the city and state (e.g., Austin, Texas)
  • After a salutation and closing in a letter (e.g., Dear _____, Sincerely,)
  • Between two adjectives preceding a noun (e.g., It was a hot, sunny day.)
4.21C.ii quotation marks
Supporting Standard

Possible examples of usage:

  • Direct quotation at the beginning and end of a sentence - use quotation marks before and after a direct quotation (e.g., Mom said, "Go clean your room.") 
  • Use quotation marks before and after the names of articles in magazines and newspapers, the titles of chapters in books, songs, and poems

Note:
While teaching how to punctuate quotations, also teach the rules for capitalization in quotations including capitalizing the first word in a direct quotation that is a complete sentence.

4.22 Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
4.22A Spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules:
Readiness Standard

Spell

WORDS WITH MORE ADVANCED ORTHOGRAPHIC PATTERNS AND RULES:

Orthographic pattern – the visual representation of the arrangement of letters in a given language

4.22A.i plural rules (e.g., words ending in f as in leaf, leaves; adding -es)
Supporting Standard

Including, but not limited to:

  • Add -s  (e.g., book/books); add -es when the word ends in -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -z, (e.g., class/classes)
  • Change -y  to i and add -s if the -y is preceded by a consonant (e.g., candy/candies); add only an -s if a word ending in -y is preceded by a vowel (e.g., key/keys)
  • Add -s for most words ending with -f or -fe (e.g., roof/roofs)
  • Add -es to some words ending in -f or -fe (e.g., wolf/wolves, knife/knives)
  • Add -es when the word ends in a vowel preceded by a consonant (e.g., hero/heroes); add -s when the word ends in two vowels (e.g., video/videos)
  • In a hyphenated compound word, make the base word/element plural (e.g., sister-in-law/sisters-in-law)
4.22A.ii irregular plurals (e.g., man/men, foot/feet, child/children)
Supporting Standard

Possible examples of irregular plurals:

  • Tooth/teeth
  • Ox/oxen
  • Di/dice
  • Woman/women
  • Mouse/mice
4.22A.iii double consonants in middle of words
Supporting Standard

Possible examples:

  • Syllables: a word in which one syllable ends with the same letter as the beginning of the following syllable (e.g., lit tle = little, gig gle = giggle)
  • Compound words: made from two words ending and beginning in the same letter (e.g., ear ring = earring)
  • Prefixes: words with prefixes that end with the same letter that begin the base word (e.g., mis spell = misspell)
  • Suffixes: in a word that ends in a closed syllable (CVC), double the final consonant before adding a suffix starting with a vowel (e.g., bat, batted, batting, batter, batty)
4.22A.iv other ways to spell sh (e.g., -sion, -tion, -cian)
Supporting Standard

Including, but not limited to:

  • -sion (e.g., admission)
  • -tion (e.g., ration)
  • -cian (e.g., musician)

Other possible examples:

  • -ti- in a medial position (e.g., patient, action)
  • -ci- in a medial position (e.g., social, delicious)
  • -si- in a medial position (e.g., admission)
  • -sci- in a medial position (e.g., conscious)
4.22B Spell base words and roots with affixes (e.g., -ion, -ment, -ly, dis-, pre-).
Supporting Standard

Spell

BASE WORDS AND ROOTS WITH AFFIXES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Common prefixes (e.g., dis-, pre-)                            
  • Common suffixes (e.g., -ion, -ment, -ly)
  • Inflectional endings (e.g., -ed, -ing, -s, etc.) including the rules associated with adding inflectional endings (e.g., dropping the e, doubling the consonant)
  • Refer to 4.2A for related vocabulary skills     

Prefix – one or more sounds or letters placed before a base word or root that change the meaning of the word

Suffix – one or more sounds or letters placed after a base word or root that change the meaning of the word

Base word – a word that can stand alone with its own meaning (e.g., school, preschool) 

Root – the basic part of a word that carries meaning

Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)

4.22C Spell commonly used homophones (e.g., there, they're, their; two, too, to).
Supporting Standard

Spell

COMMONLY USED HOMOPHONES

Homophone – a word that is pronounced the same, but not spelled the same as another word and that has a different meaning (e.g., bear and bare, week and weak)

Examples of commonly used homophones:

  • there, their, they're
  • two, too, to
  • here, hear
  • one, won
  • your, you're
4.22D Use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings.
Supporting Standard

Use

SPELLING PATTERNS AND RULES AND PRINT AND ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

To determine, check

CORRECT SPELLINGS

Possible examples of resources:

  • Word wall
  • Personal dictionary
  • High frequency word list
  • Printed or electronic dictionary
  • Printed or electronic thesaurus
  • Glossary

Note:
Refer to previous grade-level expectations and 4.22Ai-v for spelling patterns and rules.

The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 03/01/2016
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