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Instructional Focus Document
Geometry
TITLE : Unit 03: Relationships of Lines and Transversals SUGGESTED DURATION : 6 days

Unit Overview

This unit bundles student expectations that address special pairs of angles formed when one or more lines are intersected by a transversal. Constructions and manipulatives are used to explore the geometric relationships, and make conjectures by investigating patterns with a focus on parallel lines cut by a transversal and their related angles. Geometric conjectures are tested developing an awareness of the connections between conjectures, postulates, and theorems. Concepts are incorporated into both mathematical and real-world problem situations. According to the Texas Education Agency, mathematical process standards including application, tools and techniques, communication, representations, relationships, and justifications should be integrated (when applicable) with content knowledge and skills so that students are prepared to use mathematics in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Prior to this unit, students in middle school became familiar with parallel lines in the context of different geometric figures such as trapezoids and parallelograms. In Algebra 1, students approached parallel lines as having the same slope but different y-intercepts, or as lines that do not intersect when analyzing a system of equations with no solutions. In Geometry Unit 02, students determined whether lines in a coordinate plane were parallel based on their slopes.

During this unit, students explore angle relationships formed by one line and one transversal including vertical angles, linear pairs, and adjacent angles. Students construct congruent angles and a line parallel to a given line through a point not on a line using a compass and a straightedge. Students investigate patterns to make conjectures and define angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal. Students explore angle relationships formed by two parallel lines and one or more transversal(s) including corresponding angles, same side interior angles, alternate interior angles, and alternate exterior angles. Students use a variety of tools such as patty paper, folding techniques, etc. to investigate these relationships between angle pairs formed when parallel lines are cut by a transversal(s). Students formulate deductive proofs for conjectures about angles formed by parallel lines and transversals and apply these relationships to solve mathematical and real-world problems. Students explore and apply the converse of theorems and postulates for parallel lines cut by a transversal to solve mathematical and real-world problems.

After this unit, in Geometry Unit 05, students will apply alternate interior angles to determine angles of elevation and angles of depression to solve problems. In Geometry Unit 07, students will investigate quadrilaterals and regular polygons using the parallel lines theorems and postulates. In Geometry Unit 04, students will continue to apply deductive proofs to verify congruency and similarity of triangles. These geometric concepts are foundational for the continued development of geometric reasoning in Geometry and subsequent courses in mathematics.

This unit is supporting the development of Texas College Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS): III. Geometric Reasoning A1, A2, B2, D1, D2; VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning; IX. Communication and Representation; X. Connections.

According to Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making (2009), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that students should demonstrate growing levels of formality in their reasoning in the classroom during high school. The first step in this process involves conjecturing about geometric objects, where students should activate their natural inquisitiveness to wonder why something is happening. Students should then construct and evaluate geometric arguments, where students follow up their conjectures with efforts to justify or disprove them.

 

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2009). Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.
Texas Education Agency & Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas college and career readiness standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/collegereadiness/crs.pdf

OVERARCHING UNDERSTANDINGS and QUESTIONS

Geometric relationships can be used to describe mathematical patterns.

  • Why is it important to describe the geometric relationships found in spatial patterns?
  • What geometric relationships can be found in patterns?

Geometric systems are axiomatic systems built on undefined terms, defined terms, postulates, and theorems which are fundamental in verifying conjectures through logical arguments.

  • What roles do undefined terms, defined terms, postulates, and theorems serve in an axiomatic system?
  • How does the investigation of geometric patterns lead to the development of conjectures and postulates?
  • How are two-dimensional coordinate systems and algebra used to investigate and verify geometric relationships?
  • How are logical arguments applied in the study of geometric relationships and their application in real-world settings?
  • How is deductive reasoning used to understand, prove, and apply geometric conjectures and theorems pertaining to geometric relationships?
  • How are logical arguments and deductive reasoning used to prove and disprove conditionals and their related statements?
  • How can constructions be used to validate conjectures about geometric figures?

Application of attributes and measures of figures can be generalized to describe geometric relationships which can be used to solve problem situations.

  • Why are attributes and measures of figures used to generalize geometric relationships?
  • How can numeric patterns be used to formulate geometric relationships?
  • Why is it important to distinguish measureable attributes?
  • How do geometric relationships relate to other geometric relationships?
  • Why is it essential to develop generalizations for geometric relationships?
  • How are geometric relationships applied to solve problem situations?
Performance Assessment(s) Overarching Concepts
Unit Concepts
Unit Understandings
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Algebraic Reasoning

  • Patterns/Rules
  • Solve

Geometric Reasoning

  • Constructions
  • Geometric Attributes/Properties
  • Geometric Relationships
  • Logical Arguments
  • Proofs
  • Theorems/Postulates/Axioms

Measurement Reasoning

  • Angle Measures

Associated Mathematical Processes

  • Application
  • Tools and Techniques
  • Problem Solving Model
  • Communication
  • Representations
  • Relationships 
  • Justification

Geometric relationships exist between the angles formed by a transversal that cuts parallel lines.

  • How can patterns observed in angles formed by a transversal that intersects parallel lines be used to make conjectures about geometric relationships between the angles?

When lines intersect and when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, special relationships occur among the angles formed.

  • What special angle relationships occur when lines intersect?
  • What special angle relationships occur when parallel lines are cut by a transversal?

Angle relationships formed when lines are cut by a transversal can be used to prove lines are parallel.

  • Are all lines cut by a transversal parallel? Justify your reasoning.
  • What angle relationships must occur to prove that lines cut by a transversal are parallel?

Constructions provide insight into geometric relationships.

  • How does construction of two parallel lines cut by a transversal validate the geometric relationships that occur between the angles formed?

Developing conjectures, theorems, and postulates is important to the development of logical reasoning.

  • How does the investigation of patterns lead to the development of conjectures, theorems, and postulates?
  • What is the difference between a postulate and a theorem?

 

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

  • Some students may think that a visual confirmation is enough to determine that lines are parallel rather than verifying this property using geometric relationships.

Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Some students may confuse the vocabulary and terms to describe different angle pairs, such as same-side interior, alternate interior, alternate exterior, etc.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Congruent angles – angles whose angle measurement are equal
  • Conjecture – statement believed to be true but not yet proven
  • Geometric construction – construction of accurate representations of lengths, angles, and geometric figures using only a straight edge and compass
  • Parallel line – a line parallel to a given point not on a line
  • Postulates(axioms) – statements accepted as true without requiring proof
  • Theorems – conjectures that have been proven to be true
  • Vertical angles – a pair of non-adjacent, non-overlapping angles formed by two intersecting lines creating angles that are opposite and congruent to each other

Related Vocabulary:

  • Adjacent angles
  • Alternate exterior   angles
  • Alternate interior   angles
  • Congruent angles
  • Conjectures
  • Corresponding   angles
  • Converse of   postulates and theorems
  • Linear pair
  • Postulates
  • Proofs
  • Same-side interior   angles
  • Same-side exterior   angles
  • Supplementary   angles
  • Theorems
  • Transversal
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board – Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (select CCRS from Standard Set dropdown menu)

Texas Instruments – Graphing Calculator Tutorials

Texas Education Agency – STAAR Mathematics Resources

Texas Education Agency – Revised Mathematics TEKS: Vertical Alignment Charts

Texas Education Agency – Texas Response to Curriculum Focal Points for K-8 Mathematics Revised 2013

Texas Education Agency – Mathematics Curriculum

Texas Education Agency – Mathematics TEKS: Supporting Information

Texas Education Agency – Interactive Mathematics Glossary

TEKS# SE# TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 
  • Bold black text in italics: Knowledge and Skills Statement (TEKS)
  • Bold black text: Student Expectation (TEKS)
  • Strike-through: Indicates portions of the Student Expectation that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future unit(s)
  • Blue text: Supporting information / Clarifications from TCMPC (Specificity)
  • Blue text in italics: Unit-specific clarification
  • Black text: Texas Education Agency (TEA); Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS)
G.1 Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to:
G.1A Apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Apply

MATHEMATICS TO PROBLEMS ARISING IN EVERYDAY LIFE, SOCIETY, AND THE WORKPLACE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mathematical problem situations within and between disciplines
    • Everyday life
    • Society
    • Workplace

Note(s):    

  • The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS:
    • X. Connections
G.1B Use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution.

Use

A PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL THAT INCORPORATES ANALYZING GIVEN INFORMATION, FORMULATING A PLAN OR STRATEGY, DETERMINING A SOLUTION, JUSTIFYING THE SOLUTION, AND EVALUATING THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS AND THE REASONABLENESS OF THE SOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Problem-solving model
    • Analyze given information
    • Formulate a plan or strategy
    • Determine a solution
    • Justify the solution
    • Evaluate the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution

Note(s):    

  • The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
G.1C Select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems.

Select

TOOLS, INCLUDING REAL OBJECTS, MANIPULATIVES, PAPER AND PENCIL, AND TECHNOLOGY AS APPROPRIATE, AND TECHNIQUES, INCLUDING MENTAL MATH, ESTIMATION, AND NUMBER SENSE AS APPROPRIATE, TO SOLVE PROBLEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Appropriate selection of tool(s) and techniques to apply in order to solve problems
    • Tools
      • Real objects
      • Manipulatives
      • Paper and pencil
      • Technology
    • Techniques
      • Mental math
      • Estimation
      • Number sense

Note(s):    

  • The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS:
    • VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
G.1D Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate.

Communicate

MATHEMATICAL IDEAS, REASONING, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS USING MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS, INCLUDING SYMBOLS, DIAGRAMS, GRAPHS, AND LANGUAGE AS APPROPRIATE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications
    • Multiple representations, as appropriate
      • Symbols
      • Diagrams
      • Graphs
      • Language

Note(s):    

  • The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IX. Communication and Representation
G.1E Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

Create, Use

REPRESENTATIONS TO ORGANIZE, RECORD, AND COMMUNICATE MATHEMATICAL IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Representations of mathematical ideas
    • Organize
    • Record
    • Communicate
  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of representations to ensure clarity of mathematical ideas being communicated
  • Appropriate mathematical vocabulary and phrasing when communicating mathematical ideas

Note(s):    

  • The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IX. Communication and Representation
G.1F Analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas.

Analyze

MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS TO CONNECT AND COMMUNICATE MATHEMATICAL IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mathematical relationships
    • Connect and communicate mathematical ideas
      • Conjectures and generalizations from sets of examples and non-examples, patterns, etc.
      • Current knowledge to new learning

Note(s):    

  • The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS:
    • X. Connections
G.1G Display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.

Display, Explain, Justify

MATHEMATICAL IDEAS AND ARGUMENTS USING PRECISE MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE IN WRITTEN OR ORAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mathematical ideas and arguments
    • Validation of conclusions
      • Displays to make work visible to others
        • Diagrams, visual aids, written work, etc.
      • Explanations and justifications
        • Precise mathematical language in written or oral communication

Note(s):    

  • The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS:
    • IX. Communication and Representation
G.4 Logical argument and constructions. The student uses the process skills with deductive reasoning to understand geometric relationships. The student is expected to:
G.4A

Distinguish between undefined terms, definitions, postulates, conjectures, and theorems.

Distinguish

 

BETWEEN POSTULATES, CONJECTURES, AND THEOREMS

 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Postulates (axioms) – statements accepted as true without requiring proof
  • Conjecture – statement believed to be true but not yet proven
  • Theorems – conjectures that have been proven to be true
  • Representation and notation for undefined and defined terms
  • Connections between undefined terms and defined terms
  • Connections between definitions, postulates, conjectures, and theorems
    • Conjectures are suspected of being true but can be disproved with a counterexample or proven with a logical argument at which point a conjecture becomes a theorem.
    • Definitions, postulates, and theorems can be used to support a logical argument that a conjecture is true.

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s)
    • Geometry introduces the vocabulary of undefined terms, definitions, postulates, conjectures, and theorems.
    • Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS
    • III. Geometric Reasoning
      • D2 – Understand that Euclidean geometry is an axiomatic system.
    • VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
    • IX. Communication and Representation
    • X. Connections
G.5 Logical argument and constructions. The student uses constructions to validate conjectures about geometric figures. The student is expected to:
G.5A

Investigate patterns to make conjectures about geometric relationships, including angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal, criteria required for triangle congruence, special segments of triangles, diagonals of quadrilaterals, interior and exterior angles of polygons, and special segments and angles of circles choosing from a variety of tools.

Investigate

 

PATTERNS TO MAKE CONJECTURES ABOUT GEOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS, INCLUDING ANGLES FORMED BY PARALLEL LINES CUT BY A TRANSVERSAL CHOOSING FROM A VARIETY OF TOOLS

 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Conjecture – statement believed to be true but not yet proven
  • Investigations should include good sample design, valid conjecture, and inductive/deductive reasoning.
  • Patterns include numeric and geometric properties
  • Utilization of a variety of tools in the investigations (e.g., compass and straightedge, paper folding, manipulatives, dynamic geometry software, technology)
  • Angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal
  • Criteria required for triangle congruence

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s)
    • Previous grade levels investigated attributes of geometric figures.
    • Grade 8 used informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the Angle-Angle criterion for similarity of triangles
    • Geometry introduces analyzing patterns in geometric relationships and making conjectures about geometric relationships which may or may not be represented using algebraic expressions.
    • Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS
    • III. Geometric Reasoning
      • A1 – Identify and represent the features of plane and space figures.
      • A2 – Make, test, and use conjectures about one-, two-, and three-dimensional figures and their properties.
      • B2 – Identify the symmetries in a plane figure.
      • D1 – Make and validate geometric conjectures.
    • VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
    • IX. Communication and Representation
    • X. Connections
G.5B

Construct congruent segments, congruent angles, a segment bisector, an angle bisector, perpendicular lines, the perpendicular bisector of a line segment, and a line parallel to a given line through a point not on a line using a compass and a straightedge.

Construct

 

CONGRUENT ANGLES AND A LINE PARALLEL TO A GIVEN LINE THROUGH A POINT NOT ON A LINE USING A COMPASS AND A STRAIGHTEDGE

 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Geometric construction – construction of accurate representations of lengths, angles, and geometric figures using only a straight edge and compass
  • Congruent angles – angles whose angle measurements are equal
  • Parallel line – line parallel to a given line through a point not on a line

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s)
    • Previous grade levels investigated attributes of geometric figures.
    • Geometry introduces constructions.
    • Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS
    • III. Geometric Reasoning
      • A1 – Identify and represent the features of plane and space figures.
      • A2 – Make, test, and use conjectures about one-, two-, and three-dimensional figures and their properties.
      • B2 – Identify the symmetries in a plane figure.
      • D1 – Make and validate geometric conjectures.
    • VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
    • IX. Communication and Representation
    • X. Connections
G.5C

Use the constructions of congruent segments, congruent angles, angle bisectors, and perpendicular bisectors to make conjectures about geometric relationships.

Use

 

THE CONSTRUCTIONS OF CONGRUENT ANGLES TO MAKE CONJECTURES ABOUT GEOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS

 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Geometric construction – construction of accurate representations of lengths, angles, and geometric figures using only a straight edge and compass
  • Use of various tools
    • Compass and straightedge
    • Dynamic geometric software
    • Patty paper
  • Constructions
    • Congruent angles
  • Conjectures about attributes of figures related to the constructions
    • Angle measure and angle addition

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s)
    • Previous grade levels investigated attributes of geometric figures.
    • Geometry introduces the use of constructions to make conjectures about geometric relationships.
    • Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS
    • III. Geometric Reasoning
      • A1 – Identify and represent the features of plane and space figures.
      • A2 – Make, test, and use conjectures about one-, two-, and three-dimensional figures and their properties.
      • B2 – Identify the symmetries in a plane figure.
      • D1 – Make and validate geometric conjectures.
    • VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
    • IX. Communication and Representation
    • X. Connections
G.6 Proof and congruence. The student uses the process skills with deductive reasoning to prove and apply theorems by using a variety of methods such as coordinate, transformational, and axiomatic and formats such as two-column, paragraph, and flow chart. The student is expected to:
G.6A

Verify theorems about angles formed by the intersection of lines and line segments, including vertical angles, and angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal and prove equidistance between the endpoints of a segment and points on its perpendicular bisector and apply these relationships to solve problems.

Verify

THEOREMS ABOUT ANGLES FORMED BY THE INTERSECTION OF LINES AND LINE SEGMENTS, INCLUDING VERTICAL ANGLES, AND ANGLES FORMED BY PARALLEL LINES CUT BY A TRANSVERSAL

Including, but not limited to:

  • Theorems about angles formed from intersecting lines and line segments
    • Vertical angles – a pair of non-adjacent, non-overlapping angles formed by two intersecting lines creating angles that are opposite and congruent to each other
    • Angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal
  • Methods for verification
    • Coordinate geometry
    • Transformations
    • Axiomatic proofs
    • Constructions
      • Compass and straight edge
      • Dynamic geometric software
      • Patty paper
      • Manipulatives

Apply

 

THEOREMS ABOUT ANGLES FORMED BY THE INTERSECTION OF LINES AND LINE SEGMENTS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS

 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Application of theorems about angles formed by the intersection of lines and line segments
    • Vertical angles
    • Angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal

Note(s):

  • Grade Level(s)
    • Previous grade levels investigated attributes of geometric figures.
    • Grade 8 used informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the Angle-Angle criterion for similarity of triangles.
    • Geometry introduces proofs of geometric relationships.
    • Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
  • TxCCRS
    • III. Geometric Reasoning
      • A1 – Identify and represent the features of plane and space figures.
      • A2 – Make, test, and use conjectures about one-, two-, and three-dimensional figures and their properties.
      • B2 – Identify the symmetries in a plane figure.
      • D1 – Make and validate geometric conjectures.
    • VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
    • IX. Communication and Representation
    • X. Connections
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 08/11/2016
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